Macs All-in-One For Dummies, 4th Edition (2014)
Book V. Taking Care of Business
Chapter 3. Creating Documents with Pages
In This Chapter
Using document templates
Working with photos
Creating and formatting text
Saving time with formatting styles
Adding text boxes, charts, and tables
Putting the finishing touches on your document
Saving your document
Printing, exporting, and e-mailing your document
Pages is the word-processing and page-layout app of Apple’s iWork suite. In Pages, you can type, edit, and format text to produce stationery-style documents, such as letters, envelopes, and business cards as well as longer text-heavy documents, such as reports and résumés. But Pages doesn’t stop there. You can add and arrange graphics and text boxes on a page to create colorful newsletters, brochures, menus, flyers, and the like.
In this chapter, we take you through the basics of Pages. Whether you choose to work on a simple letter or an eye-catching brochure, the functions and features are the same, so the instructions we give here apply to both. First, we introduce working with templates and then we explain formatting the document and the text within. We walk you through the procedures for inserting text boxes, photos, charts, and tables. At the end of the chapter, we show you how to save, print, and share your document.
In Book V, Chapter 6, we present some of the iWork features that apply to all three apps in the suite, including Pages.
Pages is part of the iWork suite. Your Mac may have a trial version of Pages that lets you play with the application to see whether it meets your needs. You can purchase and download Pages from the App Store for $19.99 from the Apple online store or your local Apple Store or authorized reseller. There’s also a free iOS version of Pages that’s available for the iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
Working with Document Templates
To help you start writing, Pages supplies a variety of document templates. When you choose a document template, you just enter new text and customize the appearance of the template so you don’t have to create everything from scratch. The following sections tell you how to get started.
Choosing a template
Pages offers 63 templates although you find many more on the web, and we give you suggestions for websites to visit in Book V, Chapter 6. Some templates, such as those for reports or letters, are designed mostly for writing (relatively) plain and simple documents, with the emphasis on content. In these templates, you type continuous text directly on the page in the document and can insert images or charts. Other templates, such as flyers or newsletters, are designed for mixing text and graphics when content and presentation have almost equal importance. The text in these templates goes into text boxes. When choosing a template, you want to select one that’s closest to the type of document you want to create.
After you create a document by using a template, you can’t switch to a new template. If you want to use a different template, you have to create another document.
To choose a document template, follow these steps:
1. Click the Pages icon on the Dock or Launchpad.
Or choose File⇒New if Pages is already running.
A dialog appears, displaying different templates you can choose, as shown in Figure 3-1.
Figure 3-1: Pages provides various templates to help you create a document quickly.
2. Click a template category in the list on the left to narrow your choices or scroll through the center pane.
If you want to start with a blank document, click the Blank portrait or landscape template, whichever best suits the type of document you want to create. Most of, but not all, the instructions apply to blank documents; we let you know when they don’t.
3. Select a template and then click the Choose button.
Or double-click the icon for the template you want to use.
Pages opens your chosen template as a new, untitled document.
4. Choose File⇒Save.
The Save As dialog opens. Type a name for your document and choose the folder where you want to store it. Pages supports Versions, which keeps a running backup of your document each time you change it. (We explain this feature in Book I, Chapter 4, and Book III, Chapter 1.)
To keep things simple, these instructions are for saving and storing the document on your Mac. You can also save and store your iWork documents on iCloud, which is a great option if you work from different devices. See the section “Saving Your Documents on Your Mac or iCloud” later in this chapter for details.
Text on a page versus text boxes
You can quickly and easily create colorful, interesting documents on your Mac, but choosing the correct template can be confusing. For example, if you have to write a 100-page report, choose a report template that uses continuous text — not newsletter, which uses text boxes. Likewise, to publicize your garage sale, choose a flyer template, not letter.
In continuous text documents (also known as word-processing), you type directly on a page with, um, continuous text. You can insert photos or tables if you want, but they complement the text and aren’t the main focus of the document. In documents with text boxes (also known as page layout), you have to create a text box first and then place that text box somewhere on your page.
The advantage of continuous text is that you can keep typing, and Pages creates new pages automatically while you type. The disadvantage of this approach is that it’s harder to define exactly where the text will appear on the page.
The advantage of using text boxes is that you can move those text boxes anywhere on a page (or to a different page). The disadvantage of typing text in text boxes is that they can display only a limited amount of text. If you need to type a larger chunk of text, you may need to link text boxes so that when your text overflows one text box, it flows automatically into another one.
Another difference between continuous text and text box documents is that you must manually add (or delete) pages when you use a template with text boxes (by choosing Insert⇒Pages or Edit⇒Delete Page). With a continuous text template, Pages adds pages automatically while you type and deletes pages as necessary when you delete text.
Replacing placeholder text
Nearly every template, except for Blank, contains placeholder text (a mix of pseudo-Latin and gibberish that’s been used in typesetting as dummy text since the sixteenth century), which you replace with your own text. To change placeholder text in a template, follow these steps:
1. Double-click the placeholder text you want to change.
Pages selects the entire placeholder text, which can be as short as the company name in the logo at the top of a letter or as large as several paragraphs, as shown in the newsletter text selection in Figure 3-2.
2. Type any new text you want to replace the placeholder text.
Figure 3-2: To replace placeholder text, double-click it and type new text.
Replacing placeholder photos and graphics
Many templates display placeholder photos and graphics. Unless you happen to like the image included with a template, you’ll probably want to replace it with one of your own. Here we explain how to place photos from iPhoto; how to place images from other places on your computer; and how to insert a chart or table from Numbers, iWork’s spreadsheet application.
Inserting photos from iPhoto
These steps work with both templates and blank documents to add or replace photos in Pages documents with photos from iPhoto:
1. Click the photo icon on the placeholder image; Media Browser appears.
2. Click the Photos tab in the Media Browser to view all the photos stored in iPhoto, iCloud (if you’re connected to the Internet), and your Photo Stream photos.
See Book IV, Chapter 3, to learn about iPhoto.
If, like us, you have thousands of photos, click one of the subheads under Events in the Library list to narrow your choices. This makes it easier to find the photo you want to add to your document.
3. Click the photo you want to insert.
Pages replaces the placeholder image with the photo you choose from the Media Browser, as shown in Figure 3-3. The Media Browser closes automatically after the image is placed. In the next section, we explain how to manipulate photos in your documents.
Figure 3-3: Use the Media Browser to insert photos directly.
To insert a photo without a placeholder, click the Media icon on the toolbar at the top of the Pages window, and repeat the previous Steps 2 and 3. The photo is added to your document. Move and resize as in the next section.
Moving and resizing a photo
After you place a photo in a document, you can move or resize it.
To move a photo, follow these steps:
1. Drag the photo to a new position.
If your document has continuous text, the paragraphs shift while you move the image so that the text runs before and after the image. If you’re using a document with text boxes, the image moves directly over the text box.
2. Release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad when you’re happy with the new location of the photo.
To resize a photo, follow these steps:
1. Click the photo you want to resize.
Handles appear around your chosen picture.
2. Move the pointer to a handle until the pointer turns into a two-way pointing arrow.
3. Drag the handle to resize your photo.
The photo maintains its original aspect ratio.
4. Release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad when you’re happy with the new size of the photo.
Inserting other images
If the image you want to insert isn’t stored in iPhoto, do the following:
1. Choose Insert⇒Choose.
A chooser opens, showing the folders and files on your Mac (as in Figure 3-4).
2. Scroll through your folders and files until you find the image you want to insert.
3. Double-click the file.
Your image is added to your document.
4. (Optional) To replace the placeholder image, click it, press Delete, and then drag the inserted image to the placeholder location.
Figure 3-4: Choose the file you want to insert in your document.
Inserting charts and tables from Numbers
You can insert charts or tables from Numbers (iWork’s spreadsheet app, which we explore in Book V, Chapter 5) directly in a document. (In the later section, “Creating Charts and Tables,” we explain how to create a chart or table in Pages.)
1. Open the Numbers document that has the chart or table you want to insert.
2. Select the chart or table you want to insert.
3. Choose Edit⇒Copy or press +C.
4. Return to your Pages document.
5. Choose Edit⇒Paste or press +P.
6. Drag the selection handles to resize the placeholder as needed to accommodate the table or chart.
Adding pages or sections to your document
In continuous text documents, no matter how much text you type, pages are added. Each page has the same layout although some elements may be slightly changed. For example, when a second page is added to a letter, it has reduced header information (such as a smaller logo) and a page number instead of the address in the footer. In some documents, you may want to manually add a page break or create a section that has different margins than the rest of the document or begins a new chapter. For example, a financial report may have a cover page as one section, a table of contents for the second section, and third section containing descriptive text with charts and graphs.
To add different pages to your document, follow these steps:
1. Place the cursor at the end of the page that you want the additional page to follow.
2. Click the Insert icon on the toolbar and choose the type of addition you want to make.
Available options will be bold; unavailable options will be dim in the pop-up menu.
· Page Break: Appears in continuous text documents; creates a new page immediately after where you placed the cursor, which could be between two paragraphs or at the very end of your text.
· Column Break: Appears if your document has columns; adds a column immediately after where you placed the cursor.
· Page: Appears in documents that use text boxes; adds a blank page after the selected page. The text boxes, images, or other elements on the page remain unchanged.
You can add a new section to a document at any time without affecting the existing pages. Or, add a section break within an existing page, and then anything after the section break will move to the new section.
To add a new section to your document, simply choose Insert⇒Section, and a new section is added to the end of the document.
To add a section break, do the following:
1. Click to place the cursor at the beginning of the text you want to move to the new section.
2. Choose Insert⇒Section Break.
The new section begins with the text that comes after where you placed the cursor.
3. To see all the pages of your document, choose View⇒Show Page Thumbnails from the toolbar or the menu bar.
A left Sidebar opens, showing thumbnails of the pages or sections in your document, as shown in Figure 3-5. When you click a thumbnail, a yellow border surrounds all the pages that are in the same section. The first page of a section is flush left, and subsequent pages in the section are indented to the right.
Figure 3-5: Thumbnails show you all the pages in your document.
Moving around your document
The page thumbnails not only show you how many pages are in a section, but they’re also a way to jump from one page to another. Just click a thumbnail to move to that page.
Two other tools (as shown in Figure 3-5) help you manage your document:
· Zoom: Click the pop-up menu, which lets you zoom in or out of your document to views that range from 25% to 400%. You can also choose to view one or two pages at a time.
· Word count: Choose View⇒Show Word Count to display the number of words in your document.
Choose View⇒Hide Page Thumbnails/Hide Word Count to remove either of those from view.
Working with Text
Text can appear directly on a page or inside a text box. Although you type text directly on a page in continuous text documents (such as those created with the Blank template, letters, or reports), you can add text boxes and type text inside those text boxes, which you may choose to do if you want to insert a sidebar. In some templates, such as newsletters, posters, and business cards, you can type text only inside text boxes.
In some ways, text boxes behave like other objects placed in your document, such as photos or charts, and have a few different options than continuous text. We explain adding text boxes later in this chapter in the “Creating and Placing Text Boxes” section.
Either way, after you type your text, you probably want to make some changes. In the following subsections, we explain how to edit, format, and adjust the spacing of your text.
Whether you’re typing text directly on a page or inside a text box, you can edit text by adding, deleting, or rearranging it.
· Adding text: Any new text you type appears wherever the cursor is located. To add text, just place the cursor where you want the new text to appear, click, and then type away.
If you want to start your text on a new page or section of a continuous text document, choose Insert⇒Page Break or Insert⇒Section/Section Break, as we explain previously.
· Deleting text: You can delete text in two ways:
· Move the cursor to the right of the characters you want to erase and press Delete. The Delete key appears to the right of the +/= key.
· Select text and press Delete. Select text by holding down the Shift key and moving the cursor with the arrow keys or by clicking and dragging the mouse over the text to select it, and then press Delete.
· Rearranging text: After you write some text, you may need to rearrange it by copying or moving chunks of text from one location to another. You can copy and move text between two text boxes or from one part of a continuous text page to another part of the same page — or to another page all together.
To copy and move text, you can use the Cut, Copy, and Paste commands on the Edit menu, but you may find it quicker to select and drag text with the mouse. Here’s how it’s done:
1. Select the text you want to copy or move.
2. Drag the selected text to a new location.
If you want to copy text, hold down the Option key while dragging the selected text. If you want to move text, you don’t need to hold down any keys.
3. Release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad to finish copying or moving your text.
The text styles and images you choose for your document create the tone of what you want to communicate — businesslike, fun, weird, and so on. You can format text by using fonts, styles, sizes, and colors. (Later in this chapter, in the “Using Styles” section, we tell you how to apply formatting in a different way.)
To give you fast access to the formatting options, Pages displays a Format pane (see Figure 3-6) down the right side of the Pages window. To view (or hide) the Format pane, click the Format icon on the toolbar or choose View⇒Inspector⇒Format.
Figure 3-6: Choose fonts, styles, and sizes, text spacing, and alignment.
To change the selected text to another style included in the template, click the disclosure button next to the current style (Body, in the figure) to open the Paragraph Styles menu, and then click a different style, such as Title or Caption.
To format text in a way that isn’t included in the template, select the text you want to format and then click the Style tab of the Format pane. Then, in the Font section, do any of the following:
· Click the typeface (Hoefler text, in the figure). Then choose a typeface from the menu that appears. Pages has “what-you-see-is-what-you-get” (affectionately known as WYSIWYG, pronounced wizzy-wig) menus so you see what the font looks like in the pop-up menu.
· Click the style (Regular, in the figure). Then choose a style, such as Regular or Italic. You can also click the style buttons below this menu or make a selection from the Character Styles pop-up menu.
· Click the size arrows or type a number for the size you want (11, in the figure).
· Click the color swatch or picker. A color menu appears when you click the swatch, or a choice of color pickers appears when you click the color circle next to the swatch. Click a color to change the color of your selected text.
For more info on choosing colors, see Book V, Chapter 4, where we tell you how to use these tools in Keynote. These tools are similar to each other in Pages and Keynote.
· Click the gear button to open the Advanced Options menu, as shown in Figure 3-7. Use the pop-up menus to fine-tune character spacing, ligatures, and capitalization, or add a background color. When you select the Shadow check box, additional menus appear to adjust how your selected text will be shadowed.
To adjust text in a text box, you can also select the entire text box and then click the Text tab of the Format pane. However, if the text box contains more than one type of formatted text, making changes with these tools will make all the text in the text box the same.
Adjusting line spacing, justification, and margins
You can change how characters look by playing with the font, but you can also change the way a block of text looks by changing how it’s spaced on the page. In concrete terms, this means changing
· Alignment: Define how text aligns within the left and right margins, in text boxes, and also between the top and bottom.
· Spacing: Define how close together lines in a paragraph appear and how much space is between paragraphs.
· Margins: Define the left and right boundaries that text can’t go past.
Figure 3-7: Use Advanced Options to fine-tune your text.
You may be more familiar with the term justification, which means how the text appears on the left and right edges. The Pages tools that adjust justification of your selected text are in the Alignment section of the Format pane, as follows:
· Align Left: Text appears flush against the left margin but ragged along the right margin.
· Center: Each line of text is centered within the left and right margins so that text appears ragged on both left and right margins.
· Align Right: Text appears flush against the right margin but ragged along the left margin.
· Justify: Text appears flush against both the left and right margins, but extra space appears between words and characters.
To align, or justify, your selected text, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to modify.
2. Click the Align Left, Center, Align Right, or Justify buttons of the Format pane.
3. (Optional) Click the left outdent or right indent buttons to move the selected text about half an inch to the left or right.
The left outdent button is active only after you indent the selected text. Click the buttons more than once to further indent or outdent.
Changing line spacing
Line spacing used for most purposes typically varies from 0.5 to 2.0. (A value of 1.0 is single spacing, and a value of 2.0 is double spacing.) To change line spacing, follow these steps:
1. Select the line or lines of text you want to modify.
2. Click the disclosure triangle next to Space to open those options.
3. Click the pop-up menu under Spacing and choose Lines if it isn’t selected.
4. Click the up and down arrows for the spacing field to the right of the Spacing pop-up menu to choose the line spacing value, such as 1.5.
5. (Optional) Choose one of the other options from the pop-up menu and then choose a value accordingly:
· At Least: Sets a minimum of points for each line. This should be a minimum of the font size. For example, if you use a 10 point (pt) font, a 10 pt spacing is equal to a single-spaced paragraph.
· Exactly: Sets the points to the exact number you choose. Oddly, if you set a 10 pt font to an exact 10 pt spacing, the lines almost overlap.
· Between: Sets the number of points for the space between lines of text. The minimum is 1 pt and is equal to single spacing. A value equal to your font points creates double-spacing.
The changes to your selected text occur immediately so you can try different solutions and see the effect they have on your text.
6. Click the up and down arrows next to the value fields for Before Paragraph and After Paragraph to set the amount of blank space that occurs there.
7. Click the Format icon on the toolbar to close the Format pane.
Defining margins for the whole document
The left and right margins define a document with only continuous text. Documents that use only text boxes are limited by the edges of the page.
To define the margins for the whole document, do the following:
1. Click the Setup icon on the toolbar or choose View⇒Inspector⇒Document Setup from the menu bar.
2. Click the Document tab, as shown in Figure 3-8.
Figure 3-8: Set the margins for the entire document.
3. Choose a paper size, such as US Letter or Legal, from the pop-up menu in the Printer & Paper Size section.
4. (Optional) Change the page orientation.
5. In the Document Margins section, type in the values you want for your left, right, top, and bottom margins.
Or use the up and down arrows to choose a value.
To set the units of measure for your rulers, choose Pages⇒Preferences and then click Ruler. Use the pop-up menu next to Ruler Units to choose Inches, Centimeters, Points, or Picas.
Defining margins for a portion of text
To define the left and right margins of a portion of text — say a long citation from a book — you can use the ruler, which appears at the top of the Pages window when you choose View⇒Show Ruler. The ruler lets you define an exact location for your margins, such as placing the left margin exactly 1.5 inches from the left edge of the page.
To define the left and right margins of selected text, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to modify.
2. Drag the Left Margin marker to a new position on the ruler and then release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad.
The Left Margin marker is the blue triangle that appears on the left side of the ruler. If only the first lines of your paragraphs move, you’ve selected the Indent marker, which is at the very top of the Left Margin marker; grab the Left Margin marker from the bottom.
If the ruler isn’t visible, choose View⇒Show Rulers.
3. To indent the first line of a paragraph or paragraphs in your selected text, drag the Indent marker to a new position on the ruler and then release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad.
The Indent marker is the thin blue rectangle that appears over the Left Margin marker. Figure 3-9 shows the Left and Right Margin markers and the Indent marker.
If you drag the Left Margin marker after you move the Indent marker, the Indent marker moves with the Left Margin marker; dragging the Indent marker, however, moves the Indent marker by itself.
4. Drag the Right Margin marker to a new position on the ruler and then release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad.
The Right Margin marker is the blue triangle that appears on the right side of the ruler.
Figure 3-9: Adjust paragraph margins and set first-line indents.
Creating precise tabs and indents
Dragging the Left Margin and Right Margin markers on the ruler is a fast way to adjust the margins or first-line indents of a text selection. For a more precise way, follow these steps:
1. Select the text you want to modify or click anywhere in the continuous text to apply the tabs to the entire document.
2. Click the Format icon on the toolbar or choose View⇒Inspector⇒Format.
3. Click the Layout tab.
4. Click the disclosure triangle next to Tabs.
The Text Inspector controls shown in Figure 3-10 appear.
Figure 3-10: Choose precise values for adjusting text margins.
5. (Optional) Click in the Decimal Character field if you plan to use the tab for numbers with decimals.
For example, you could change a decimal to a comma if you’re creating a European document.
6. Enter a value or click the up and down arrows to choose a value in the Default Spacing field.
7. (Optional) If you want to add tab stops, click the plus button at the bottom of the window in the Tabs section and do the following:
1. Click the number under Stops and indicate a precise position for the tab.
2. Click the type of tab you want in the menu under Alignment: Left, Center, Right, or Decimal.
3. Choose a Leader style from the pop-up menu: none, dashes, dots, a line, or arrows.
If you want to delete a tab, click the tab and then click the minus sign to delete it.
Click the disclosure triangle next to Indents to establish precise indent measurements for the first lines of paragraphs and also for the left and right margins of your selected text.
Adding headers and footers to a continuous text document
The header and footer is the space between the top (header) and bottom (footer) margin and the document body where you type your main text. The header and footer are where you usually place the date, page number, or document title; they contain information that repeats on each page. As with margins, documents that use text boxes don’t have headers or footers.
If you use a template, the headers and footers are predefined, but that doesn’t stop you from changing them if you want.
Here’s how to use headers and footers:
1. Click the Setup icon on the toolbar.
Or, choose View⇒Inspector⇒Document Setup.
2. Click the Document tab (refer to Figure 3-8).
3. Select the Header and/or Footer check boxes.
Text boxes for one or both will be added to your document.
4. Choose how far from the edge of the page you want the header and footer to appear; type in a number or use the up and down arrows.
The header or footer text box moves according to value you set. The top and bottom margins must be greater than the header and footer distance; otherwise, the document text will cover the header and footer.
If your header is 1 inch, your top margin should be at least 1.5 inches. The header will begin 1 inch from the top of the page, and the main text — also known as the document body — will begin 1.5 inches from the top of the page or one-half inch below the header.
5. Leave the Document Body check box selected.
Deselecting this box will convert your document to a page layout (text box only) document and may cause you to lose some of your work.
6. Move the pointer near the top or bottom of the page, more or less where the header or footer should be, until an empty box appears, as shown in Figure 3-11.
Figure 3-11: Enter header information.
7. Click in the empty box.
The cursor flashes in the empty box, and a comment tells you where the header will be used.
Notice the three header text boxes; you can enter distinct information in each and press Return independently in each one so text appears on different lines.
8. Type the text you want to appear at the top or bottom of each page.
Format the text as you would any other text, setting the typeface, size, and style or choosing a style associated with the template.
9. To add the date or page number automatically, position the cursor where you want the text to appear, and then choose Insert⇒Page Number/Page Count/Date & Time from the Pages menu bar.
To format the Date & Time, double-click the inserted text. A window opens, as shown in Figure 3-12, giving you format choices and the option to update the date whenever the file is opened.
To format the page numbers, click the Section tab in the Setup pane and then click the Format pop-up menu to choose the number style (Arabic, Roman, or letters).
If your document has multiple sections that you want numbered separately, click the first page of a section in the Page Thumbnails, and then click the Section tab. Select the Start At radio button (which automatically deselects the Continue from Previous Section radio button) and then type the page number with which you want the section to begin, as shown in Figure 3-13.
If you don’t want headers to appear on the first page — for example, you create a report that has a cover page — click the Setup icon on the toolbar and then click the Section tab. Select the Hide on First Page of Section check box.
Figure 3-12: Choose a format.
Figure 3-13: Specify headers and footers and page numbering for sections as well as the entire document.
Creating and Placing Text Boxes
As we mention earlier, text boxes hold text that you can place anywhere on a page (even in the middle of other text). You can create and place text boxes on any Pages document, whether created from a blank document or a template.
Creating a text box
To create a text box, follow these steps:
1. Click the Text icon on the toolbar and choose the paragraph style you want to use for the text in the text box, as shown in Figure 3-14.
Figure 3-14: Choose the paragraph style for your new text box.
2. Type new text inside the text box.
Pages keeps your text within the boundaries of the text box.
You can also choose Insert⇒Text Box. The new text box will use the Body paragraph style.
Moving a text box
After you create a text box, you can move it. Simply drag the text box to a new location, even to a different page. If your document is lengthy, you can click the text box, choose Edit⇒Cut, click the destination page in the Pages pane (choose View⇒Show Thumbnail Pages if you don’t see it), and then choose Edit⇒Paste to place your text box on the selected page.
Resizing a text box
Sometimes a text box is too large or small for the text you type inside. To fix this problem, resize the text box:
1. Click anywhere inside the text box.
2. Move the pointer to a handle until the pointer turns into a two-way arrow.
3. Drag a handle to resize the text box.
Handles on the sides resize vertically, making the box longer, or horizontally, making the box taller. Handles on the corners resize proportionally in both directions, making the overall box bigger.
4. Release the mouse button or lift your finger from the trackpad when you’re happy with the size of the text box.
Uniting text boxes
If you type more text than a text box can display, you see a Clipping Indicator icon, which appears as a plus sign inside a square at the bottom of the text box. When you see the Clipping Indicator at the bottom of a text box, you have two choices.
· Enlarge the text box. You can resize the text box so it can display more text, as we describe in the preceding section. This may not always be practical because your page layout may not accommodate an expanded text box.
· Unite two text boxes. If your text box is limited by the page margins, create another text box on the next page. Click one of the text boxes and then click the Arrange tab in the Format pane. Shift-click both text boxes, and then click the Unite button that appears at the bottom of the Format pane (when Arrange is selected). The two text boxes come together and your text flows from one to the next.
Depending on how much text you have, you can (and may need to) unite multiple text boxes.
You may have a favorite way to format text. Although you could manually change each formatting feature, you may find it faster and easier to use styles instead. Formatting styles store different types of formatting that you can apply to text. The Pages templates have formatting styles stored already. When you create your own documents, you can create formatting styles, too. By using formatting styles, you can format text quickly and consistently with minimum effort.
The following are the types of styles you can apply to text:
· Paragraph Styles: Affect an entire paragraph (or many paragraphs) where the end of a paragraph is defined by a line that ends where you press Return.
· Image Styles: Affect inserted images, applying special effects, borders, fill, and shadows.
· Text Box Styles: Affect text inside a text box. There may be multiple paragraph styles inside a text box, in which case you want to follow the instructions for paragraph styles to apply them to each one in the text box.
Using a paragraph style
To apply a paragraph style, follow these steps:
1. Drag to select the text you want to modify.
2. If you don’t see the Format pane, click the Format icon on the toolbar.
3. If you’re working with text in a text box, click the Text tab. If you chose continuous text, go to Step 4.
4. Click the disclosure triangle at the top of the Format pane to open the Paragraph Styles menu, as shown in Figure 3-15.
Figure 3-15: See the paragraph, character, and list styles used in the document.
5. Choose a style that you want to use for your selected text.
Pages formats your selected text.
6. (Optional) Use the Font tools (as we explain in the earlier section “Formatting text”) to make changes to the paragraph style, click the disclosure triangle to open the Paragraph Styles menu, and then do one of the following to save the changes:
· Create a new paragraph style. Click the plus sign next to Paragraph Styles. A new style is added to the menu with the name of the original style followed by a number 2. Click this new name in the menu and then click the arrow to the right to open a submenu. Choose Rename Style; the name is highlighted allowing you to type a new name.
· Save the changes to the existing paragraph style. Click the name of the original style and then click the arrow to the right to open a submenu. Click Update Style.
From the same pop-up menu, you can delete the style or assign a Hot Key so when you want to apply the style, instead of using the Format pane, you can just select the text and then press the Fn key associated with the style.
Using an image style
To apply a style to an image, follow these steps:
1. Click the image you want to modify.
2. If you don’t see the Format pane, click the Format icon on the toolbar.
3. Click the Style tab and then click one of the Image Styles, as shown in Figure 3-16.
Pages formats your selected image.
4. (Optional) Use the tools to make changes to the image style:
· Border: Surrounds your image with a Line or Picture Frame; define the width, color, and scale of your choice.
· Shadow: Creates one of three types of shadows — Drop, Contact, or Curved — behind the entire image. Blur, offset, and opacity settings add more special effects.
· Reflection: Adds a mirrored effect of your image under it.
· Opacity: Affects the entire image and changes the intensity of all components: the text, fills, and borders. This is a good tool if you want to use the image as a backdrop behind text.
5. Click the left or right triangle to open a second Image Styles chooser, and then click the plus sign to create a new image style.
A new style is added to the chooser and the icon shows the effect.
Figure 3-16: Choose from effects you can add to your images.
Using a text box style
When you create a text box, you can format the text (as we explain in the earlier section, “Formatting text”), and you can format the box itself, adding a background fill color, border, and shadow. Follow these steps:
1. Click the text box you want to modify.
These actions apply to the text box and its contents so if there’s more than one text style within the text box, you want to format those individually and then format the text box to apply a fill and/or border.
2. If you don’t see the Format pane, click the Format icon on the toolbar.
3. (Optional) Click the Style tab and then click one of the Text Box Styles, if there’s only one text style in the text box.
4. Use the Fill, Border, Shadow, and Opacity tools to make changes to the image style:
With the Fill tool, you can choose the color and style of the color you want behind your text.
Refer to the previous steps for using Border, Shadow, and Opacity.
5. Click the left or right triangle to open a second Text Box Styles chooser, and then click the plus sign to create a new text box style.
A new style is added to the chooser and the icon shows the effect.
Creating Charts and Tables
As we mention earlier in this chapter, you can insert charts and tables directly from Numbers, which is great when you already have the charts and tables prepared or if you have complex data that’s more easily worked with in Numbers. If you’re starting from scratch, it may be quicker to build your chart or table directly in Pages. Charts are pie charts or bar charts that graphically represent data. Tables comprise rows and columns of information where the intersection of a row and a column is a cell.
Adding and removing a chart
Sometimes presenting your information as a chart makes your information easier to understand. To add a chart to a Pages document, follow these steps:
1. Choose Insert⇒Chart⇒Chart Type or click the Charts icon on the Pages toolbar, and then choose the type of chart you want to create — bar, pie, 2-D or 3-D, for example.
A chart appears.
2. Click the Edit Chart Data button at the bottom of the chart.
The Chart Data Editor appears, as shown in Figure 3-17.
Figure 3-17: Enter the data you want to display in the Chart Data Editor.
3. Double-click the Row and Column field headers of the Chart Data Editor to select the placeholder text and enter the information you want on your chart.
4. Click the cells below the headers to enter the number values you want the chart to show.
The data entered appears in the chart and titles.
5. Click the Switch Axis buttons in the upper-right corner of the Chart Data Editor to invert the axis.
6. Click the Format icon to open the Format pane and then click the following tabs to choose how you want the data to appear:
· Chart: Change the chart color scheme (Chart Styles), the typeface, and size; add gaps between columns; add backgrounds, borders, and shadow; and even change the chart type.
· Axis: Edit the axis options and value labels on the axis.
· Series: Edit value labels on the bars and add trendlines.
· Arrange: Wrap text around the chart and align and distribute its position among other objects on your document, such as text boxes and images.
See Book V, Chapter 5, where we present Numbers. Read that chapter for detailed instructions about formatting charts.
To remove a chart, click it and press Delete.
Adding a table
Tables in Pages are calculable, which means that you can write formulas or insert functions in much the same way you would in Numbers. These are the steps for adding a table to your document:
1. Choose Insert⇒Table⇒Table Type or click the Table icon on the Pages toolbar.
A blank table appears on your document.
2. Edit the size of the rows and columns of your table by clicking the row and column headers and dragging to change their sizes.
3. Click the add rows or add columns button next to the far ends of the row and column headers and use the up and down arrows on the pop-up menu to set the number of rows and columns, as shown in Figure 3-18.
Figure 3-18: Set the number of rows and columns on your table.
4. Click the Format icon on the toolbar to see the Format pane, if it’s not open.
5. Click the tabs to edit the table as follows:
· Table: Change the table color and layout scheme (Table Styles), and use the menus to set the number of header rows and columns and footer rows, select the table font size, and add a table outline and grid lines.
· Cell: Select all the cells or a portion of them and then choose the data format you want to use to fill the cells and add fill and border to the cells.
· Text: Edit the font and text alignment.
· Arrange: Wrap text around the table and align and distribute its position among other objects on your document, such as text boxes and images.
6. Set up functions and conditional formats by entering numerical data in a row or column of cells.
Type an equals sign to open the Functions pane and then assign a function — for example, sum or average — to the cell at the end of the row or column.
See Book V, Chapter 5, where we present Numbers. Read that chapter for detailed instructions about formatting tables and writing formulas and using functions.
Shapes add interest to your documents and make a good alternative to using background fill and border for your text. For example, you can create an interesting shape and then place a text box over it. (See the next section, “Arranging objects,” to learn about positioning the two.) So rather than have a boring rectangle of text with a colored background, you can have a polygon with the text on it. If you use the Wrap Text tool that follows the contours of the shape, your text takes on the polygon shape, too. With your document open to the page where you want to insert a shape, follow these steps:
1. Click the Shape icon on the toolbar and click the left and right arrows to flip through the color selections, as shown in Figure 3-19.
2. Choose the shape you want.
Your selected shape appears on the page with active resizing handles.
Figure 3-19: Pages offers shapes of many sizes to add to your documents.
Most shapes have green grabber dots that you drag to change the shape or size of the shape. Hover the cursor over one of the green dots until it changes from an arrow to a plus sign, and then drag to see how the shape changes. For example, dragging clockwise or counter-clockwise on the star or polygon increases or decreases the number of points on the star and the number of sides on the polygon. The grabber dot on the quote bubble or square moves the direction of the angle that points to another object.
3. Click the shape and grab a resizing handle — one of the squares on the box that surrounds the shape — to enlarge or reduce the shape to the size you want.
4. Drag the shape to better position it on the page.
5. Click the shape, click the Format icon on the toolbar, and click the Style tab in the Format pane.
6. Click the options you see to change the color of the shape or add special effects, such as fill, shadow, and borders to the shape.
To add text to your shape, create a text box (as we explain earlier) and drag it over your shape. Then edit the text. See the next section to learn about aligning objects.
In your documents, you often have multiple shapes, objects, and images that may overlap. Sometimes one object even hides another and you almost go crazy trying to find it. Arranging and aligning objects can help keep everything in view and neatly … well … arranged.
Think of the shapes, objects, and so on as a stack of paper. If the bigger or darker sheet is on top, it hides what’s underneath. You have to rearrange the order of your objects in order to see them all. To reveal objects that may be hidden by others, follow these steps:
1. Click the object that you want to send to the bottom of the stack.
2. Choose Arrange⇒Send to Back.
Anything that was hidden by that object now appears on top of it.
3. Click the other objects one at a time and choose Arrange⇒Send Back, Arrange⇒Bring to Front, or Arrange⇒Bring Forward until you’re satisfied with the appearance of your page.
Text boxes are most useful when positioned as the top item on the stack, so most of the time, you want to choose Arrange⇒Bring to Front so your text boxes rest on top of other shapes or images.
After you have the objects in the positions you like, you can create groups or lock the objects.
4. To create a group of objects, select your objects and then choose Arrange⇒Group.
The objects stay together and move together.
5. To lock objects, select a single object, a group, or multiple objects, and then choose Arrange⇒Lock.
The locked objects or group are unmovable, undeleteable, and uneditable. (You can, however, copy or duplicate the locked object.) To unlock the objects, choose Arrange⇒Unlock.
Alignment refers to how objects are placed in relationship to each other. To align your shapes or objects, do the following:
1. Hold down the Shift key and click the objects you want to align.
Resizing handles appear around each selected object.
2. Choose Arrange⇒Align Objects or Arrange⇒Distribute Objects.
· Align Objects: Lets you align the left, right, top, or bottom sides of the objects, or the vertical or horizontal centers.
· Distribute Objects: Evenly distributes the selected objects between the two farthest objects; choose horizontal or vertical.
Wrapping text around an object
When you insert a text box, photo, or chart inside continuous text or a text box, it sits on top of the existing text. To neatly separate the text and object, you want to wrap the text around the object. Follow these steps:
1. Click the object, be it a text box, photo, or chart.
2. Click the Format icon on the toolbar or choose View⇒Show Inspector⇒Format.
3. Click the Arrange tab, as shown in Figure 3-20.
4. Click a text-wrap pop-up menu and choose one of the following:
· Automatic: Pages determines the best distribution for the object in the text.
· Around: The text surrounds all sides of the object.
· Above and Below: The text appears above and below the object, but the space to the left and right is clear.
· None: The object will sit on top of the text.
Figure 3-20: Wrap text around objects.
5. If you choose any of the choices in Step 4 except None, click one of the Text Fit buttons to have the text create a rectangle around the object (left button) or flow around the contours of the object (right button).
6. Type in the Spacing field or use the up and down arrows to indicate the amount of space between the object and the text.
Polishing Your Document
When you finish designing your document, you’re ready to show it to the world. Of course, before you show your document to others, you should proofread your document for grammar and spelling. Fortunately, Pages is happy to help you check a document’s spelling.
Spell-checking a document
Pages can spell-check your entire document, including text trapped inside text boxes and shapes. To spell-check an entire document, follow these steps:
1. Choose Edit⇒Spelling and Grammar⇒Show Spelling and Grammar.
If you choose Edit⇒Spelling and Grammar⇒Check Document Now, Pages underlines words it thinks are misspelled, but it doesn’t offer any suggestions.
A dialog appears, highlighting misspelled words and offering possible corrections, as shown in Figure 3-21.
Figure 3-21: Check spelling and grammar.
2. Click one of the following:
· Change: Changes the misspelled word with the word selected in the list box
· Find Next: Looks for the next misspelled word
· Ignore: Skips the misspelled word
· Learn: Stores the selected word in the Pages dictionary
· Define: Launches Mac’s Dictionary application and displays the word’s definition in the Dictionary’s main window
· Guess: Offers best-guess word choices
3. Click the Close button of the Spelling dialog at any time to make it go away.
By default, Pages checks your spelling while you type. When Pages identifies a misspelled word, it underlines it with a red dotted line. If you Control-click any word underlined with a red dotted line, Pages displays a shortcut menu of correctly spelled words that you can choose. If you want to turn off spell-checking while you type, choose Edit⇒Spelling and Grammar⇒Check Spelling While Typing to clear the check mark for this command.
Proofreading your document is a good idea, even after spell-checking, because the spell checker only makes sure that the word is correctly spelled. If you type, “I have to dogs,” when you really meant to type, “I have two dogs,” no spell checker is going to flag that.
Finding and replacing text
Pages can also find and replace words or phrases. Say you’re writing an article about a person named Swanson, only to realize that just before you send the article to your editor that the name is spelled Swansen. Pages will search your entire document and replace Swanson with Swansen. To find and replace a word or phrase, do the following:
1. Choose Edit⇒Find⇒Find.
The Find dialog opens.
2. Type the word or phrase you want to find in the Find field.
3. Type the word or phrase you want to replace the found text with in the Replace field.
4. Click Replace All to replace all occurrences of the old word with the new word, or click Next to find the first occurrence of the word or phrase, and then do one of the following:
· Click Replace to replace the old word with the new one. You have to click Next to highlight the next occurrence.
· Click Replace & Find to replace the highlighted word and find the next occurrence. (This saves you from having to click Replace and then click Next.)
5. Continue reviewing the occurrences by repeating Step 4.
Clicked the Advanced button (it looks like a gear) to see the following options:
· Match Case: Select this check box to have Pages distinguish uppercase and lowercase letters and find text exactly as you type it.
· Whole Words: Select this check box to ignore whole words that contain your text. If, for example, you search for place and select this option, placemat or placement won’t be highlighted.
Saving Your Documents on Your Mac or iCloud
A handy feature of the iWork suite is that you can save your documents to iCloud and then access them from the apps on other devices where you have the Pages app installed and iCloud activated or from the iCloud website on other computers. This saves you from copying your document to a flash drive or e-mailing it to yourself.
Before you can use this feature, you have to turn on Pages in iCloud preferences by doing the following:
1. Choose ⇒System Preferences and click the iCloud icon.
2. Scroll down, select the Documents & Data check box, and then click the Options button.
3. Select the Pages check box.
4. Click Done and then click Close to exit System Preferences.
To save your documents, choose File⇒Save. In the Save As window that opens, type a name for your document, and then click the Where pop-up menu, as shown in Figure 3-22, to choose iCloud or another destination folder, drive, or server. Click the disclosure triangle next to Save As to expand the window and scroll through your folders and directories.
Figure 3-22: Save your documents to your Mac or to iCloud.
Printing Your Documents
You can print and distribute your document in the traditional way — as good old-fashioned hard copy — by following these steps:
1. Choose File⇒Print.
2. Choose your printer, settings, number of copies, and page range.
3. Click the Print button.
When your document comes out of the printer, you can hand it to someone, hang it up, or put a stamp on it and drop it in your local mailbox.
Exporting to a Different File Format
Chances are that you’ll want to share your document electronically, too. However, as much as you love your Mac and Pages, not everyone uses the same types of computers or applications. Don’t let that stop you from sharing your document files, though, because Pages can export files in diverse formats.
Although Pages saves documents in its own proprietary file format when you choose File⇒Save, if you want to share your Pages documents with others who don’t have the Pages application, you can export your document into another file format by using these options:
· PDF: Saves your document as a series of static pages stored in the PDF Adobe Acrobat file format that can be viewed (but not necessarily edited) by any computer with a PDF viewing application.
· Word: Saves your document as a Microsoft Word file, which can be opened by any word processor that can read and edit Microsoft Word files.
· Plain Text: Saves your document as text without any formatting or graphic effects.
· ePub: Saves your document in a format that can be read in iBooks on an iPad, iPod touch, or iPhone as well as on many electronic readers.
· Pages ’09: Saves your document a Pages ’09 document. If you’re sharing your document with someone who hasn’t upgraded to the latest version of Pages, this is a way to be sure they can access your document.
· ZIP Archive: Compresses your document and saves it as a file that can easily be shared or stored.
The PDF file format preserves all formatting, but it doesn’t let anyone edit that file unless they use a separate PDF-editing application, such as Adobe Acrobat Pro. If someone needs to edit your document, the Word option preserves Pages documents well. The Plain Text option is useful only if you can’t transfer your Pages document to another application as a Word file.
To export a Pages document, follow these steps:
1. Choose File⇒Export To⇒File Type.
A dialog appears.
2. Select an option, such as Word or ePub, and then click Next.
3. In the dialog that appears, enter a name for your exported document in the Save As text box.
4. Select the folder where you want to store your document.
You may need to switch drives or folders until you find where you want to save your file.
5. Click Export.
When you export a document, your original Pages document remains untouched in its original location.
You can also share your documents as a Mail or Messages attachment or make them available on iCloud or AirDrop, not to mention social networking sites. See the end of Book V, Chapter 4, to learn about sharing. It works the same for Pages as for Keynote.