﻿ ﻿Excel Function Reference - Appendixes - Excel 2016 Formulas (2016)

# Excel 2016 Formulas (2016)

### PART VII Appendixes

· Appendix A: Excel Function Reference

· Appendix B: Using Custom Number Formats

### Appendix A Excel Function Reference

This appendix contains a complete listing of the Excel worksheet functions. The functions are arranged alphabetically in tables by categories used by the Insert Function dialog box.

For more information about a particular function, including its arguments, select the function in the Insert Function dialog box and click Help on This Function. On the Web

An interactive workbook that contains this information is available at this book’s website. The filename is worksheet functions.xlsx.

Table A.1 Compatibility Category Functions

 Function What It Does BETADIST Returns the cumulative beta probability density function. BETAINV Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function. BINOMDIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. CEILING Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. CHIDIST Returns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHIINV Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHITEST Returns the test for independence. CONFIDENCE Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. COVAR Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. CRITBINOM Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. EXPONDIST Returns the exponential distribution. FDIST Returns the F probability distribution. FINV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. FLOOR Rounds a number down, toward zero. FORECAST Predicts a future value along a linear trend. FTEST Returns the result of an F-test. GAMMADIST Returns the gamma distribution. GAMMAINV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. HYPGEOMDIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution. LOGINV Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution. LOGNORMDIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. MODE Returns the most common value in a data set. NEGBINOMDIST Returns the negative binomial distribution. NORMDIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution. NORMINV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. NORMSDIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORMSINV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. PERCENTILE Returns the kth percentile of values in a range. PERCENTRANK Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set. POISSON Returns the Poisson distribution. QUARTILE Returns the quartile of a data set. RANK Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. STDEV Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, ignoring text and logical values. STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, ignoring text and logical values. TDIST Returns the Student’s t-distribution. TINV Returns the inverse of the Student’s t-distribution. TTEST Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test. VAR Estimates variance based on a sample, ignoring logical values and text. VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population, ignoring logical values and text. WEIBULL Returns the Weibull distribution. ZTEST Returns the one-tailed p-value of a z-test.

The functions in the Compatibility category all have new versions that were introduced in Excel 2010 or later. The old versions are still available for compatibility.

Table A.2 Cube Category Functions

 Function What It Does CUBEKPIMEMBER Returns a key performance indicator property and displays the name and property in the cell. CUBEMEMBER Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy. CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY Returns the value of a member property in the cube. CUBERANKEDMEMBER Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set. CUBESET Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server. CUBESETCOUNT Returns the number of items in a set. CUBEVALUE Returns an aggregated value from a cube.

Table A.3 Database Category Functions

 Function What It Does DAVERAGE Averages the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DCOUNT Counts the cells that contain numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DCOUNTA Counts the nonblank cells in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DGET Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify. DMAX Returns the largest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify. DMIN Returns the smallest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify. DPRODUCT Multiplies the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DSTDEVP Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population, using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DSUM Adds the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DVAR Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify. DVARP Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify.

Table A.4 Date & Time Category Functions

 Function What It Does DATE Returns the serial number of a particular date. DATEVALUE Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number. DAY Converts a serial number to a day of the month. DAYS** Returns the number of days between two dates. DAYS360 Calculates the number of days between two dates, based on a 360-day year. EDATE Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date. EOMONTH Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months. HOUR Converts a serial number to an hour. ISOWEEKNUM** Returns the ISO week number in the year for a given date. MINUTE Converts a serial number to a minute. MONTH Converts a serial number to a month. NETWORKDAYS Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates. NETWORKDAYS.INTL* Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates (international version). NOW Returns the serial number of the current date and time. SECOND Converts a serial number to a second. TIME Returns the serial number of a particular time. TIMEVALUE Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number. TODAY Returns the serial number of today’s date. WEEKDAY Converts a serial number to a day of the week. WEEKNUM Returns the week number in the year. WORKDAY Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays. WORKDAY.INTL* Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays (international version). YEAR Converts a serial number to a year. YEARFRAC Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between two dates.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.5 Engineering Category Functions

 Function What It Does BESSELI Returns the modified Bessel function In(x). BESSELJ Returns the Bessel function Jn(x). BESSELK Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x). BESSELY Returns the Bessel function Yn(x). BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to decimal. BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal. BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal. BITAND** Returns a bitwise AND of two numbers. BITLSHIFT** Returns a value number shifted left by a specified number of bits. BITOR** Returns a bitwise OR of two numbers. BITRSHIFT** Returns a value number shifted right by a specified number of bits. BITXOR** Returns a bitwise Exclusive OR of two numbers. COMPLEX Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number. CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another. DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary. DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal. DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal. DELTA Tests whether two values are equal. ERF Returns the error function. ERF.PRECISE* Returns the error function. ERFC Returns the complementary error function. ERFC.PRECISE* Returns the complementary error function. GESTEP Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value. HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary. HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal. HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal. IMABS Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number. IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number. IMARGUMENT Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians. IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number. IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number. IMCOSH** Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number. IMCOT** Returns the cotangent of a complex number. IMCSC** Returns the cosecant of a complex number. IMCSCH** Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of a complex number. IMDIV Returns the quotient of two complex numbers. IMEXP Returns the exponential of a complex number. IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG10 Returns the base 10 logarithm of a complex number. IMLOG2 Returns the base 2 logarithm of a complex number. IMPOWER Returns a complex number raised to an integer power. IMPRODUCT Returns the product of complex numbers. IMREAL Returns the real coefficient of a complex number. IMSEC** Returns the secant of a complex number. IMSECH** Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number. IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number. IMSINH** Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number. IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number. IMSUB Returns the difference of two complex numbers. IMSUM Returns the sum of complex numbers. IMTAN** Returns the tangent of a complex number. OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to binary. OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to decimal. OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to hexadecimal.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.6 Financial Category Functions

 Function What It Does ACCRINT Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. ACCRINTM Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. AMORDEGRC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. AMORLINC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. COUPDAYBS Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. COUPDAYS Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. COUPDAYSNC Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date. COUPNCD Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. COUPNUM Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and maturity date. COUPPCD Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. CUMIPMT Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. CUMPRINC Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods. DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period, using the fixed declining- balance method. DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period, using the double declining- balance method or some other method that you specify. DISC Returns the discount rate for a security. DOLLARDE Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number. DOLLARFR Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price expressed as a fraction. DURATION Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. EFFECT Returns the effective annual interest rate. FV Returns the future value of an investment. FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. INTRATE Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. IPMT Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period. IRR Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. ISPMT Returns the interest paid during a specific period. MDURATION Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100. MIRR Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. NOMINAL Returns the annual nominal interest rate. NPER Returns the number of periods for an investment. NPV Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. ODDFPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period. ODDFYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. ODDLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period. ODDLYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. PDURATION* Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value. PMT Returns the periodic payment for an annuity. PPMT Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. PRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. PRICEDISC Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security. PRICEMAT Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. PV Returns the present value of an investment. RATE Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. RECEIVED Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. RRI* Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. SLN Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. SYD Returns the sum-of-years’ digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill. TBILLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill. TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. VDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a double declining-balance method. XIRR Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. XNPV Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. YIELD Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. YIELDDISC Returns the annual yield for a discounted security, for example, a Treasury bill. YIELDMAT Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.7 Information Category Functions

 Function What It Does CELL Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell. ERROR.TYPE Returns a number matching an error value. INFO Returns information about the current operating environment. ISBLANK Returns TRUE if the cell is empty. ISERR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A. ISERROR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value. ISEVEN Returns TRUE if the number is even. ISFORMULA* Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula. ISLOGICAL Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value. ISNA Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value. ISNONTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is not text. ISNUMBER Returns TRUE if the value is a number. ISODD Returns TRUE if the number is odd. ISREF Returns TRUE if the value is a reference. ISTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is text. N Converts a non-number value to a number, a date to a serial number, TRUE to 1, and anything else to 0. NA Returns the error value #N/A. SHEET* Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet. SHEETS* Returns the number of sheets in a reference. TYPE Returns a number indicating the data type of a value.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.8 Logical Category Functions

 Function What It Does AND Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE. FALSE Returns the logical value FALSE. IF Specifies a logical test to perform. IFERROR Returns an alternate result if the first argument evaluates to an error. IFNA* Returns an alternate result if the first argument evaluates to #N/A. NOT Changes FALSE to TRUE and TRUE to FALSE. OR Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE. TRUE Returns the logical value TRUE. XOR* Returns a logical Exclusive OR of all arguments.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.9 Lookup & Reference Category Functions

 Function What It Does ADDRESS Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet. AREAS Returns the number of areas in a reference. CHOOSE Chooses a value from a list of values based on an index number. COLUMN Returns the column number of a reference. COLUMNS Returns the number of columns in a reference. FORMULATEXT* Returns the formula at the given reference as text. GETPIVOTDATA Returns data stored in a pivot table. HLOOKUP Searches for a value in the top row of a table and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify. HYPERLINK Creates a shortcut that opens a document on your hard drive, a server, or the Internet. INDEX Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array. INDIRECT Returns a reference indicated by a text string. LOOKUP Returns a value from either a one-row or one-column range or from an array. MATCH Returns the relative position of an item in an array. OFFSET Returns a reference offset from a given reference. ROW Returns the row number of a reference. ROWS Returns the number of rows in a reference. RTD Returns real-time data from a program that supports COM automation. TRANSPOSE Returns the transpose of an array. VLOOKUP Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table and then returns a value in the same row from a column you specify in the table.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.10 Math & Trig Category Functions

 Function What It Does ABS Returns the absolute value of a number. ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number. ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. ACOT** Returns the arccotangent of a number. ACOTH** Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. AGGREGATE* Returns an aggregate in a list or database. ARABIC** Converts a Roman number to Arabic, as a number. ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number. ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number. ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x and y coordinates. ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. BASE** Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base). CEILING.MATH** Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects. COMBINA** Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items. COS Returns the cosine of a number. COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. COT** Returns the cotangent of an angle. COTH** Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number. CSC** Returns the cosecant of an angle. CSCH** Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. DECIMAL** Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. DEGREES Converts radians to degrees. EVEN Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number. FACT Returns the factorial of a number. FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number. FLOOR.MATH** Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. GCD Returns the greatest common divisor. INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. LCM Returns the least common multiple. LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number. LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. LOG10 Returns the base 10 logarithm of a number. MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array. MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array. MMULT Returns the matrix product of two arrays. MOD Returns the remainder from division. MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. MUNIT** Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. ODD Rounds a number to the nearest odd integer away from zero. PI Returns the value of pi. POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power. PRODUCT Multiplies its arguments. QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division. RADIANS Converts degrees to radians. RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1. RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between the numbers that you specify. ROMAN Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text. ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero. ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero. SEC** Returns the secant of an angle. SECH** Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula. SIGN Returns the sign of a number. SIN Returns the sine of the given angle. SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. SQRT Returns the square root of a number. SQRTPI Returns the square root of a number multiplied by pi. SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal in a list or database. SUM Adds its arguments. SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. SUMIFS Adds the cells specified by a multiple criteria. SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. SUMX2MY2* Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMX2PY2* Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMXMY2* Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. TAN Returns the tangent of a number. TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. TRUNC Truncates a number to a specified precision.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.11 Statistical Category Functions

 Function What It Does AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean. AVERAGE Returns the arithmetic mean of its arguments. AVERAGEA Returns the arithmetic mean of its arguments and includes evaluation of text and logical values. AVERAGEIF Returns the arithmetic mean for the cells specified by a given criterion. AVERAGEIFS Returns the arithmetic mean for the cells specified by multiple criteria. BETA.DIST* Returns the beta cumulative distribution function. BETA.INV* Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution. BINOM.DIST* Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability. BINOM.DIST.RANGE** Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution. BINOM.INV* Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value. CHISQ.DIST* Returns the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.DIST.RT* Returns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.INV* Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.INV.RT* Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution. CHISQ.TEST* Returns the test for independence. CONFIDENCE.NORM* Returns the confidence interval for a population mean. CONFIDENCE.T* Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a Student’s t-distribution. CORREL Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets. COUNT Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments. COUNTA Counts how many values are in the list of arguments. COUNTBLANK Counts the number of blank cells in the argument range. COUNTIF Counts the number of cells that meet the criteria you specify in the argument. COUNTIFS Counts the number of cells that meet multiple criteria. COVARIANCE.P* Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations. COVARIANCE.S* Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products’ deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations. EXPON.DIST* Returns the exponential distribution. F.DIST* Returns the F probability distribution. F.DIST.RT* Returns the F probability distribution. F.INV* Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. F.INV.RT* Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution. F.TEST* Returns the result of an F-test. FISHER Returns the Fisher transformation. FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation. FORECAST.ETS*** Returns the forecasted value for a specific future target date using exponential smoothing method. FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT*** Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date. FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY*** Returns the length of the repetitive pattern detected for the specified time series. FORECAST.ETS.STAT*** Returns the requested statistic for the forecast. FORECAST.LINEAR*** Predicts a future value along a linear trend by using existing values. FREQUENCY Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array. GAMMA** Returns the gamma function value. GAMMA.DIST* Returns the gamma distribution. GAMMA.INV* Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution. GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function. GAMMALN.PRECISE* Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function. GAUSS** Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution. GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean. GROWTH Returns values along an exponential trend. HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean. HYPGEOM.DIST* Returns the hypergeometric distribution. INTERCEPT Returns the intercept of the linear regression line. KURT Returns the kurtosis of a data set. LARGE Returns the kth largest value in a data set. LINEST Returns the parameters of a linear trend. LOGEST Returns the parameters of an exponential trend. LOGNORM.DIST* Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution. LOGNORM.INV* Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution. MAX Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, ignoring logical values and text. MAXA Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including logical values and text. MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers. MIN Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments, ignoring logical values and text. MINA Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments, including logical values and text. MODE.MULT* Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring or repetitive values in an array or range of data. MODE.SNGL* Returns the most common value in a data set. NEGBINOM.DIST* Returns the negative binomial distribution. NORM.DIST* Returns the normal cumulative distribution. NORM.INV* Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution. NORM.S.DIST* Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution. NORM.S.INV* Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution. PEARSON Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. PERCENTILE.EXC* Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0 through 1, exclusive. PERCENTILE.INC* Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0 through 1, inclusive. PERCENTRANK.EXC* Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0 through 1, exclusive) of the data set. PERCENTRANK.INC* Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0 through 1, inclusive) of the data set. PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects. PERMUTATIONA** Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects. PHI** Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution. POISSON.DIST* Returns the Poisson distribution. PROB Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits. QUARTILE.EXC* Returns the quartile of the data set, based on percentile values from 0 through1, exclusive. QUARTILE.INC* Returns the quartile of a data set. RANK.AVG* Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. RANK.EQ* Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers. RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. SKEW Returns the skewness of a distribution. SKEW.P** Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population. SLOPE Returns the slope of the linear regression line. SMALL Returns the kth smallest value in a data set. STANDARDIZE Returns a normalized value. STDEV.P* Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population. STDEV.S* Estimates standard deviation based on a sample. STDEVA Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including text and logical values. STDEVPA Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including text and logical values. STEYX Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression. T.DIST Returns the left-tailed Student’s t-distribution. T.DIST.2T* Returns the the two-tailed Student’s t-distribution. T.DIST.RT* Returns the right-tailed Student’s t-distribution. T.INV* Returns the left-tailed inverse of the Student’s t-distribution. T.INV.2T* Returns the two-tailed inverse of the Student’s t-distribution. T.TEST* Returns the probability associated with a Student’s t-test. TREND Returns values along a linear trend. TRIMMEAN Returns the mean of the interior of a data set. VAR.P* Calculates variance based on the entire population. VAR.S* Estimates variance based on a sample. VARA Estimates variance based on a sample, including logical values and text. VARPA Calculates variance based on the entire population, including logical values and text. WEIBULL.DIST* Returns the Weibull distribution. Z.TEST* Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a z-test.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

*** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2016.

Table A.12 Text Category Functions

 Function What It Does BAHTTEXT Converts a number to Baht text. CHAR Returns the character specified by the code number. CLEAN Removes all nonprintable characters from text. CODE Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string. CONCATENATE Joins several text strings into one text string. DOLLAR Converts a number to text, using currency format. EXACT Returns TRUE if two text strings are identical. FIND Returns the starting position of one text string within another (case sensitive). FIXED Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals. LEFT Returns the specified number of characters from the start of a text string. LEN Returns the number of characters in a text string. LOWER Converts text to lowercase. MID Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify. NUMBERVALUE* Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner. PROPER Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text string. REPLACE Replaces part of a text string with a different text string. REPT Repeats text a given number of times. RIGHT Returns the specified number of characters from the end of a text string. SEARCH Returns the starting position of one text string within another (not case sensitive). SUBSTITUTE Substitutes new text for old text in a text string. T Returns the text argument or an empty string for a non-text argument. TEXT Formats a number and converts it to text. TRIM Removes excess spaces from text. UNICHAR* Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by the given numeric value. UNICODE* Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text. UPPER Converts text to uppercase. VALUE Converts a text argument to a number.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.13 Web Category Functions

 Function What It Does ENCODEURL* Returns a URL-encoded string. FILTERXML* Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath. WEBSERVICE* Returns data from a web service.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

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