﻿ ﻿Worksheet Function Reference - Appendixes - Microsoft Excel 2016 BIBLE (2016)

# Microsoft Excel 2016 BIBLE (2016)

### Part VIIAppendixes

This part contains two very useful appendixes. Appendix A provides a complete reference of all the worksheet functions. Appendix B covers Excel's shortcut keys.

In This Part

1. Appendix A
Worksheet Function Reference

2. Appendix B
Excel Shortcut Keys

### Appendix AWorksheet Function Reference

This appendix contains a complete list of Excel worksheet functions. The functions are arranged alphabetically by the categories displayed in the Insert Function dialog box.

For more information about a particular function, including its arguments, select the function in the Insert Function dialog box and then click Help on This Function.

For newer functions, the Excel version in which they first appeared is indicated. Knowing when a function first became available is useful if you share your workbooks with people who use an earlier version of Excel.

An interactive workbook that contains this information is available on this book's website at www.wiley.com/go/excel2016bible. The filename is worksheet functions.xlsx.

Table A.1 Compatibility Category Functions

 Function What It Does BETADIST Returns the cumulative beta probability density function BETAINV Returns the inverse of the cumulative beta probability density function BINOMDIST Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability CEILING Rounds a number to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance CHIDIST Returns the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHIINV Returns the inverse of the one-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHITEST Returns the test for independence CONFIDENCE Returns the confidence interval for a population mean COVAR Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations CRITBINOM Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value EXPONDIST Returns the exponential distribution FDIST Returns the F probability distribution FINV Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution FLOOR Rounds a number down, toward zero FTEST Returns the result of an F-Test GAMMADIST Returns the gamma distribution GAMMAINV Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution HYPGEOMDIST Returns the hypergeometric distribution LOGINV Returns the inverse of the lognormal distribution LOGNORMDIST Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution MODE Returns the most common value in a data set NEGBINOMDIST Returns the negative binomial distribution NORMDIST Returns the normal cumulative distribution NORMINV Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution NORMSDIST Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution NORMSINV Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution PERCENTILE Returns the kth percentile of values in a range PERCENTRANK Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set POISSON Returns the Poisson distribution QUARTILE Returns the quartile of a data set RANK Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers STDEV Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, ignoring text and logical values STDEVP Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, ignoring text and logical values. TDIST Returns the Student's t-distribution TINV Returns the inverse of the Student's t-distribution TTEST Returns the probability associated with a Student's t-test VAR Estimates variance based on a sample, ignoring logical values and text VARP Calculates variance based on the entire population, ignoring logical values and text WEIBULL Returns the Weibull distribution ZTEST Returns the two-tailed p-value of a Z-test

All the functions in the Compatibility category have new versions that were introduced in Excel 2010 or Excel 2013. The new versions are listed in the Statistical or Math & Trigonometry category. The old versions are still available for compatibility.

Table A.2 Cube Category Functions

 Function What It Does CUBEKPIMEMBER* Returns a key performance indicator name, property, and measure and displays the name and property in the cell CUBEMEMBER* Returns a member or tuple in a cube hierarchy CUBEMEMBERPROPERTY* Returns the value of a member property in the cube CUBERANKEDMEMBER* Returns the nth, or ranked, member in a set CUBESET* Defines a calculated set of members or tuples by sending a set expression to the cube on the server CUBESETCOUNT* Returns the number of items in a set CUBEVALUE* Returns an aggregated value from a cube

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2007.

Table A.3 Database Category Functions

 Function What It Does DAVERAGE Averages the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DCOUNT Counts the cells that contain numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DCOUNTA Counts the nonblank cells in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DGET Extracts a single value from a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify DMAX Returns the largest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify DMIN Returns the smallest number in a column of a list or database that matches conditions you specify DPRODUCT Multiplies the values in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DSTDEV Estimates the standard deviation of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DSTDEVP Calculates the standard deviation of a population based on the entire population, using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DSUM Adds the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DVAR Estimates the variance of a population based on a sample by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify DVARP Calculates the variance of a population based on the entire population by using the numbers in a column of a list or database that match conditions you specify

Table A.4 Date & Time Category Functions

 Function What It Does DATE Returns the serial number of a particular date DATEVALUE Converts a date in the form of text to a serial number DAY Converts a serial number to a day of the month DAYS** Returns the number of days between two dates DAYS360 Calculates the number of days between two dates, based on a 360-day year EDATE Returns the serial number of the date that is the indicated number of months before or after the start date EOMONTH Returns the serial number of the last day of the month before or after a specified number of months HOUR Converts a serial number to an hour ISOWEEKNUM** Returns the number of the ISO week number of the year for a given date MINUTE Converts a serial number to a minute MONTH Converts a serial number to a month NETWORKDAYS Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates NETWORKDAYS.INTL* Returns the number of whole workdays between two dates (international version) NOW Returns the serial number of the current date and time SECOND Converts a serial number to a second TIME Returns the serial number of a particular time TIMEVALUE Converts a time in the form of text to a serial number TODAY Returns the serial number of today's date WEEKDAY Converts a serial number to a day of the week WEEKNUM Returns the week number in the year WORKDAY Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays WORKDAY.INTL* Returns the serial number of the date before or after a specified number of workdays (international version) YEAR Converts a serial number to a year YEARFRAC Returns the year fraction representing the number of whole days between start_date and end_date

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.5 Engineering Category Functions

 Function What It Does BESSELI Returns the modified Bessel function In(x) BESSELJ Returns the Bessel function Jn(x) BESSELK Returns the modified Bessel function Kn(x) BESSELY Returns the Bessel function Yn(x) BIN2DEC Converts a binary number to decimal BIN2HEX Converts a binary number to hexadecimal BIN2OCT Converts a binary number to octal BITAND** Returns a bitwise AND of two numbers BITLSHIFT** Returns a value number shifted left by shift_amount bits BITOR** Returns a bitwise OR of two numbers BITRSHIFT** Returns a value number shifted right by shift_amount bits BITXOR** Returns a bitwise Exclusive OR of two numbers COMPLEX Converts real and imaginary coefficients into a complex number CONVERT Converts a number from one measurement system to another DEC2BIN Converts a decimal number to binary DEC2HEX Converts a decimal number to hexadecimal DEC2OCT Converts a decimal number to octal DELTA Tests whether two values are equal ERF Returns the error function ERF.PRECISE* Returns the error function ERFC Returns the complementary error function ERFC.PRECISE* Returns the complementary error function GESTEP Tests whether a number is greater than a threshold value HEX2BIN Converts a hexadecimal number to binary HEX2DEC Converts a hexadecimal number to decimal HEX2OCT Converts a hexadecimal number to octal IMABS Returns the absolute value (modulus) of a complex number IMAGINARY Returns the imaginary coefficient of a complex number IMARGUMENT Returns the argument theta, an angle expressed in radians IMCONJUGATE Returns the complex conjugate of a complex number IMCOS Returns the cosine of a complex number IMCOSH** Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a complex number IMCOT** Returns the cotangent of a complex number IMCSC** Returns the cosecant of a complex number IMDIV Returns the quotient of two complex numbers IMEXP Returns the exponential of a complex number IMLN Returns the natural logarithm of a complex number IMLOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a complex number IMLOG2 Returns the base-2 logarithm of a complex number IMPOWER Returns a complex number raised to an integer power IMPRODUCT Returns the product of complex numbers IMREAL Returns the real coefficient of a complex number IMSEC** Returns the secant of a complex number IMSECH** Returns the hyperbolic secant of a complex number IMSIN Returns the sine of a complex number IMSINH** Returns the hyperbolic sine of a complex number IMSQRT Returns the square root of a complex number IMSUB Returns the difference of two complex numbers IMSUM Returns the sum of complex numbers IMTAN** Returns the tangent of a complex number OCT2BIN Converts an octal number to binary OCT2DEC Converts an octal number to decimal OCT2HEX Converts an octal number to hexadecimal

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.6 Financial Category Functions

 Function What It Does ACCRINT Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays periodic interest. ACCRINTM Returns the accrued interest for a security that pays interest at maturity. AMORDEGRC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. AMORLINC Returns the depreciation for each accounting period. (The depreciation coefficient depends on the life of the assets.) COUPDAYBS Returns the number of days from the beginning of the coupon period to the settlement date. COUPDAYS Returns the number of days in the coupon period that contains the settlement date. COUPDAYSNC Returns the number of days from the settlement date to the next coupon date. COUPNCD Returns the next coupon date after the settlement date. COUPNUM Returns the number of coupons payable between the settlement date and the maturity date. COUPPCD Returns the previous coupon date before the settlement date. CUMIPMT Returns the cumulative interest paid between two periods. CUMPRINC Returns the cumulative principal paid on a loan between two periods. DB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the fixed declining-balance method. DDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified period using the double declining-balance method or some other method that you specify. DISC Returns the discount rate for a security. DOLLARDE Converts a dollar price, expressed as a fraction, into a dollar price expressed as a decimal number. DOLLARFR Converts a dollar price, expressed as a decimal number, into a dollar price expressed as a fraction. DURATION Returns the annual duration of a security with periodic interest payments. EFFECT Returns the effective annual interest rate. FV Returns the future value of an investment. FVSCHEDULE Returns the future value of an initial principal after applying a series of compound interest rates. INTRATE Returns the interest rate for a fully invested security. IPMT Returns the interest payment for an investment for a given period. IRR Returns the internal rate of return for a series of cash flows. ISPMT Returns the interest associated with a specific loan payment. MDURATION Returns the Macauley modified duration for a security with an assumed par value of \$100. MIRR Returns the internal rate of return where positive and negative cash flows are financed at different rates. NOMINAL Returns the annual nominal interest rate. NPER Returns the number of periods for an investment. NPV Returns the net present value of an investment based on a series of periodic cash flows and a discount rate. ODDFPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd first period. ODDFYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd first period. ODDLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security with an odd last period. ODDLYIELD Returns the yield of a security with an odd last period. PDURATION* Returns the number of periods required by an investment to reach a specified value. PMT Returns the periodic payment for an annuity. PPMT Returns the payment on the principal for an investment for a given period. PRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays periodic interest. PRICEDISC Returns the price per \$100 face value of a discounted security. PRICEMAT Returns the price per \$100 face value of a security that pays interest at maturity. PV Returns the present value of an investment. RATE Returns the interest rate per period of an annuity. RECEIVED Returns the amount received at maturity for a fully invested security. RRI* Returns an equivalent interest rate for the growth of an investment. SLN Returns the straight-line depreciation of an asset for one period. SYD Returns the sum-of-years' digits depreciation of an asset for a specified period. TBILLEQ Returns the bond-equivalent yield for a Treasury bill. TBILLPRICE Returns the price per \$100 face value for a Treasury bill. TBILLYIELD Returns the yield for a Treasury bill. VDB Returns the depreciation of an asset for a specified or partial period using a double declining-balance method. XIRR Returns the internal rate of return for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. XNPV Returns the net present value for a schedule of cash flows that is not necessarily periodic. YIELD Returns the yield on a security that pays periodic interest. YIELDDISC Returns the annual yield for a discounted security, such as a Treasury bill. YIELDMAT Returns the annual yield of a security that pays interest at maturity.

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.7 Information Category Functions

 Function What It Does CELL Returns information about the formatting, location, or contents of a cell ERROR.TYPE Returns a number corresponding to an error type INFO Returns information about the current operating environment ISBLANK Returns TRUE if the value is blank ISERR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value except #N/A ISERROR Returns TRUE if the value is any error value ISEVEN Returns TRUE if the number is even ISFORMULA* Returns TRUE if there is a reference to a cell that contains a formula ISLOGICAL Returns TRUE if the value is a logical value ISNA Returns TRUE if the value is the #N/A error value ISNONTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is not text ISNUMBER Returns TRUE if the value is a number ISODD Returns TRUE if the number is odd ISREF Returns TRUE if the value is a reference ISTEXT Returns TRUE if the value is text N Returns a value converted to a number NA Returns the error value #N/A SHEET* Returns the sheet number of the referenced sheet SHEETS* Returns the number of sheets in a reference TYPE Returns a number indicating the data type of a value

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.8 Logical Category Functions

 Function What It Does AND Returns TRUE if all its arguments are TRUE FALSE Returns the logical value FALSE IF Specifies a logical test to perform IFERROR* Returns a different result if the first argument evaluates to an error IFNA** Returns the value you specify if the expression resolves to #N/A; otherwise, returns the result of the expression NOT Reverses the logic of its argument OR Returns TRUE if any argument is TRUE TRUE Returns the logical value TRUE XOR** Returns a logical exclusive OR of all arguments

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2007.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.9 Lookup & Reference Category Functions

 Function What It Does ADDRESS Returns a reference as text to a single cell in a worksheet AREAS Returns the number of areas in a reference CHOOSE Chooses a value from a list of values COLUMN Returns the column number of a reference COLUMNS Returns the number of columns in a reference FORMULATEXT* Returns the formula at the given reference as text GETPIVOTDATA Returns data stored in a pivot table HLOOKUP Searches for a value in the top row of a table and then returns a value in the same column from a row you specify in the table HYPERLINK Creates a shortcut that opens a document on your hard drive, a server, or the Internet INDEX Uses an index to choose a value from a reference or array INDIRECT Returns a reference indicated by a text value LOOKUP Returns a value from either a one-row or one-column range or from an array MATCH Returns the relative position of an item in an array OFFSET Returns a reference offset from a given reference ROW Returns the row number of a reference ROWS Returns the number of rows in a reference RTD Returns real-time data from a program that supports COM automation TRANSPOSE Returns the transpose of an array VLOOKUP Searches for a value in the leftmost column of a table and then returns a value in the same row from a column you specify in the table

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.10 Math & Trig Category Functions

 Function What It Does ABS Returns the absolute value of a number. ACOS Returns the arccosine of a number. ACOSH Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number. ACOT*** Returns the arccotangent of a number. ACOTH*** Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number. AGGREGATE** Returns an aggregate in a list or database. ARABIC*** Converts a Roman number to Arabic. ASIN Returns the arcsine of a number. ASINH Returns the inverse hyperbolic sine of a number. ATAN Returns the arctangent of a number. ATAN2 Returns the arctangent from x and y coordinates. ATANH Returns the inverse hyperbolic tangent of a number. BASE*** Converts a number into a text representation with the given radix (base). CEILING.MATH*** Rounds a number up, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. COMBIN Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects. COMBINA*** Returns the number of combinations with repetitions for a given number of items. COS Returns the cosine of a number. COSH Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number. COT*** Returns the cotangent of an angle. COTH*** Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of a number. CSC*** Returns the cosecant of an angle. CSCH*** Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle. DECIMAL*** Converts a text representation of a number in a given base into a decimal number. DEGREES Converts radians to degrees. EVEN Rounds a number up to the nearest even integer. EXP Returns e raised to the power of a given number. FACT Returns the factorial of a number. FACTDOUBLE Returns the double factorial of a number. FLOOR.MATH*** Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance. GCD Returns the greatest common divisor. INT Rounds a number down to the nearest integer. LCM Returns the least common multiple. LN Returns the natural logarithm of a number. LOG Returns the logarithm of a number to a specified base. LOG10 Returns the base-10 logarithm of a number. MDETERM Returns the matrix determinant of an array. MINVERSE Returns the matrix inverse of an array. MMULT Returns the matrix product of two arrays. MOD Returns the remainder from division. MROUND Returns a number rounded to the desired multiple. MULTINOMIAL Returns the multinomial of a set of numbers. MUNIT*** Returns the unit matrix or the specified dimension. ODD Rounds a number up to the nearest odd integer. PI Returns the value of pi. POWER Returns the result of a number raised to a power. PRODUCT Multiplies its arguments. QUOTIENT Returns the integer portion of a division. RADIANS Converts degrees to radians. RAND Returns a random number between 0 and 1. RANDBETWEEN Returns a random number between the numbers that you specify. ROMAN Converts an Arabic numeral to Roman, as text. ROUND Rounds a number to a specified number of digits. ROUNDDOWN Rounds a number down, toward zero. ROUNDUP Rounds a number up, away from zero. SEC*** Returns the secant of an angle. SECH*** Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle. SERIESSUM Returns the sum of a power series based on the formula. SIGN Returns the sign of a number. SIN Returns the sine of the given angle. SINH Returns the hyperbolic sine of a number. SQRT Returns a positive square root. SQRTPI Returns the square root of pi. SUBTOTAL Returns a subtotal in a list or database. SUM Adds its arguments. SUMIF Adds the cells specified by a given criteria. SUMIFS* Adds the cells specified by multiple criteria. SUMPRODUCT Returns the sum of the products of corresponding array components. SUMSQ Returns the sum of the squares of the arguments. SUMX2MY2** Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMX2PY2** Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two arrays. SUMXMY2** Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two arrays. TAN Returns the tangent of a number. TANH Returns the hyperbolic tangent of a number. TRUNC Truncates a number. (You specify the precision of the truncation.)

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2007.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

*** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.11 Statistical Category Functions

 Function What It Does AVEDEV Returns the average of the absolute deviations of data points from their mean AVERAGE Returns the average of its arguments AVERAGEA Returns the average of its arguments and includes evaluation of text and logical values AVERAGEIF* Returns the average for the cells specified by a given criterion AVERAGEIFS* Returns the average for the cells specified by multiple criteria BETA.DIST** Returns the beta cumulative distribution function BETA.INV** Returns the inverse of the cumulative distribution function for a specified beta distribution BINOM.DIST** Returns the individual term binomial distribution probability BINOM.DIST.RANGE*** Returns the probability of a trial result using a binomial distribution BINOM.INV** Returns the smallest value for which the cumulative binomial distribution is less than or equal to a criterion value CHISQ.DIST** Returns the chi-square distribution CHISQ.DIST.RT** Returns the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.INV** Returns the inverse of the left-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.INV.RT** Returns the inverse of the right-tailed probability of the chi-squared distribution CHISQ.TEST** Returns the test for independence CONFIDENCE.NORM** Returns the confidence interval for a population mean CONFIDENCE.T** Returns the confidence interval for a population mean, using a student's t-distribution CORREL Returns the correlation coefficient between two data sets COUNT Counts how many numbers are in the list of arguments COUNTA Counts how many values are in the list of arguments COUNTBLANK Counts the number of blank cells in the argument range COUNTIF Counts the number of cells that meet the criteria you specify in the argument COUNTIFS* Counts the number of cells that meet multiple criteria COVARIANCE.P** Returns covariance, the average of the products of paired deviations COVARIANCE.S** Returns the sample covariance, the average of the products deviations for each data point pair in two data sets. DEVSQ Returns the sum of squares of deviations EXPON.DIST** Returns the exponential distribution F.DIST** Returns the F probability distribution F.DIST.RT** Returns the F probability distribution F.INV** Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution F.INV.RT** Returns the inverse of the F probability distribution F.TEST** Returns the result of an F-test FISHER Returns the Fisher transformation FISHERINV Returns the inverse of the Fisher transformation FORECAST Returns a value along a linear trend FORECAST.ETS**** Calculates a future value based on existing values using the Exponential Triple Smoothing (ETS) algorithm FORECAST.ETS.CONFINT**** Returns a confidence interval for the forecast value at the specified target date FORECAST.ETS.SEASONALITY**** Returns the length of the repetitive pattern detected for the specified time series FORECAST.ETS.STAT**** Returns a statistical value as a result of time series forecasting FORECAST.LINEAR**** Calculates a future value by using existing values and linear regression FREQUENCY Returns a frequency distribution as a vertical array GAMMA*** Returns the Gamma function value GAMMA.DIST** Returns the gamma distribution GAMMA.INV** Returns the inverse of the gamma cumulative distribution GAMMALN Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x) GAMMALN.PRECISE** Returns the natural logarithm of the gamma function, G(x) GAUSS*** Returns 0.5 less than the standard normal cumulative distribution GEOMEAN Returns the geometric mean GROWTH Returns values along an exponential trend HARMEAN Returns the harmonic mean HYPGEOM.DIST** Returns the hypergeometric distribution INTERCEPT Returns the intercept of the linear regression line KURT Returns the kurtosis of a data set LARGE Returns the kth largest value in a data set LINEST Returns the parameters of a linear trend LOGEST Returns the parameters of an exponential trend LOGNORM.DIST** Returns the cumulative lognormal distribution LOGNORM.INV** Returns the inverse of the lognormal cumulative distribution MAX Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, ignoring logical values and text MAXA Returns the maximum value in a list of arguments, including logical values and text MEDIAN Returns the median of the given numbers MIN Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments, ignoring logical values and text MINA Returns the minimum value in a list of arguments, including logical values and text MODE.MULT** Returns a vertical array of the most frequently occurring or repetitive values in an array or range of data MODE.SNGL** Returns the most common value in a data set NEGBINOM.DIST** Returns the negative binomial distribution NORM.DIST** Returns the normal cumulative distribution NORM.INV** Returns the inverse of the normal cumulative distribution NORM.S.DIST** Returns the standard normal cumulative distribution NORM.S.INV** Returns the inverse of the standard normal cumulative distribution PEARSON Returns the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient PERCENTILE.EXC** Returns the kth percentile of values in a range, where k is in the range 0 through 1, exclusive PERCENTILE.INC** Returns the kth percentile of values in a range PERCENTRANK.EXC** Returns the rank of a value in a data set as a percentage (0 through 1, exclusive) of the data set PERCENTRANK.INC** Returns the percentage rank of a value in a data set PERMUT Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects PERMUTATIONA*** Returns the number of permutations for a given number of objects (with repetitions) that can be selected from the total objects PHI*** Returns the value of the density function for a standard normal distribution POISSON.DIST** Returns the Poisson distribution PROB Returns the probability that values in a range are between two limits QUARTILE.EXC** Returns the quartile of the data set based on percentile values from 0 through 1, exclusive QUARTILE.INC** Returns the quartile of a data set RANK.AVG** Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers RANK.EQ** Returns the rank of a number in a list of numbers RSQ Returns the square of the Pearson product moment correlation coefficient SKEW Returns the skewness of a distribution SKEW.P*** Returns the skewness of a distribution based on a population: a characterization of the degree of asymmetry of a distribution around its mean SLOPE Returns the slope of the linear regression line SMALL Returns the kth smallest value in a data set STANDARDIZE Returns a normalized value STDEV.P** Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population STDEV.S** Estimates standard deviation based on a sample STDEVA Estimates standard deviation based on a sample, including text and logical values STDEVPA Calculates standard deviation based on the entire population, including text and logical values STEYX Returns the standard error of the predicted y-value for each x in the regression T.DIST Returns the left-tailed Student's t-distribution T.DIST.2T** Returns the two-tailed Student's t-distribution T.DIST.RT** Returns the right-tailed Student's t-distributions T.INV** Returns the left-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution T.INV.2T** Returns the two-tailed inverse of the Student's t-distribution T.TEST** Returns the probability associated with a Student's T-test TREND Returns values along a linear trend TRIMMEAN Returns the mean of the interior of a data set VAR.P** Calculates variance based on the entire population VAR.S** Estimates variance based on a sample VARA Estimates variance based on a sample, including logical values and text VARPA Calculates variance based on the entire population, including logical values and text WEIBULL.DIST** Returns the Weibull distribution Z.TEST** Returns the one-tailed probability-value of a Z-test

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2007.

** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2010.

*** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

**** Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2016.

Table A.12 Text Category Functions

 Function What It Does BAHTTEXT Converts a number to Baht text CHAR Returns the character specified by the code number CLEAN Removes all nonprintable characters from text CODE Returns a numeric code for the first character in a text string CONCATENATE Joins several text items into one text item DOLLAR Converts a number to text using currency format EXACT Checks to see whether two text values are identical FIND Finds one text value within another (case sensitive) FIXED Formats a number as text with a fixed number of decimals LEFT Returns the leftmost characters from a text value LEN Returns the number of characters in a text string LOWER Converts text to lowercase MID Returns a specific number of characters from a text string, starting at the position you specify NUMBERVALUE* Converts text to number in a locale-independent manner PROPER Capitalizes the first letter in each word of a text value REPLACE Replaces characters within text REPT Repeats text a given number of times RIGHT Returns the rightmost characters from a text value SEARCH Finds one text value within another (not case sensitive) SUBSTITUTE Substitutes new text for old text in a text string T Returns the text referred to by value TEXT Formats a number and converts it to text TRIM Removes excess spaces from text UNICHAR* Returns the Unicode character that is referenced by the given numeric value UNICODE* Returns the number (code point) that corresponds to the first character of the text UPPER Converts text to uppercase VALUE Converts a text argument to a number

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

Table A.13 Web Category Functions

 Function What It Does ENCODEURL* Returns a URL-encoded string FILTERXML* Returns specific data from the XML content by using the specified XPath WEBSERVICE* Returns data from a web service

* Indicates a function introduced in Excel 2013.

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