Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List - Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy (2015)

Blockchain: Blueprint for a New Economy (2015)

Appendix B. Ledra Capital Mega Master Blockchain List

New York–based venture capital firm Ledra Capital has an ongoing attempt to brainstorm and enumerate the wide range of potential uses of blockchain technology. Some of these categories include financial instruments; public, private, and semipublic records; physical asset keys; intangibles; and other potential applications:

I.                    Financial instruments, records, and models

1.              Currency

2.              Private equities

3.              Public equities

4.              Bonds

5.              Derivatives (futures, forwards, swaps, options, and more complex variations)

6.              Voting rights associated with any of the preceding

7.              Commodities

8.              Spending records

9.              Trading records

10.          Mortgage/loan records

11.          Servicing records

12.          Crowdfunding

13.          Microfinance

14.          Microcharity

II.                    Public records

15.Land titles

16.          Vehicle registries

17.          Business license

18.          Business incorporation/dissolution records

19.          Business ownership records

20.          Regulatory records

21.          Criminal records

22.          Passports

23.          Birth certificates

24.          Death certificates

25.          Voter IDs

26.          Voting

27.          Health/safety inspections

28.          Building permits

29.          Gun permits

30.          Forensic evidence

31.          Court records

32.          Voting records

33.          Nonprofit records

34.          Government/nonprofit accounting/transparency

I.                    Private records


36.          Signatures

37.          Wills

38.          Trusts

39.          Escrows

40.          GPS trails (personal)

I.                    Other semipublic records


42.          Certifications

43.          Learning outcomes

44.          Grades

45.          HR records (salary, performance reviews, accomplishment)

46.          Medical records

47.          Accounting records

48.          Business transaction records

49.          Genome data

50.          GPS trails (institutional)

51.          Delivery records

52.          Arbitration

I.                    Physical asset keys

53.Home/apartment keys

54.          Vacation home/timeshare keys

55.          Hotel room keys

56.          Car keys

57.          Rental car keys

58.          Leased cars keys

59.          Locker keys

60.          Safety deposit box keys

61.          Package delivery (split key between delivery firm and receiver)

62.          Betting records

63.          Fantasy sports records

I.                    Intangibles


65.          Vouchers

66.          Reservations (restaurants, hotels, queues, etc.)

67.          Movie tickets

68.          Patents

69.          Copyrights

70.          Trademarks

71.          Software licenses

72.          Videogame licenses

73.          Music/movie/book licenses (DRM)

74.          Domain names

75.          Online identities

76.          Proof of authorship/proof of prior art

I.                    Other

77.Documentary records (photos, audio, video)

78.          Data records (sports scores, temperature, etc.)

79.          Sim cards

80.          GPS network identity

81.          Gun unlock codes

82.          Weapons unlock codes

83.          Nuclear launch codes

84.          Spam control (micropayments for posting)

Endnotes and References

1 Kayne, R. “What Is BitTorrent?” wiseGEEK, December 25, 2014. http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-bittorrent.htm#didyouknowout.

2 Beal, V. “Public-key encryption.” Webopedia. http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/P/public_key_cryptography.html.

3 Hof, R. “Seven Months After FDA Slapdown, 23andMe Returns with New Health Report Submission.” Forbes, June 20, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/roberthof/2014/06/20/seven-months-after-fda-slapdown-23andme-returns-with-new-health-report-submission/.

4 Knight, H. and B. Evangelista. “S.F., L.A. Threaten Uber, Lyft, Sidecar with Legal Action.” SFGATE, September 25, 2041. http://m.sfgate.com/bayarea/article/S-F-L-A-threaten-Uber-Lyft-Sidecar-with-5781328.php.

5 Although it is not strictly impossible for two files to have the same hash, the number of 64-character hashes is vastly greater than the number of files that humanity can foreseeably create. This is similar to the cryptographic standard that even though a scheme could be cracked, the calculation would take longer than the history of the universe.

6 Nakamoto, S. “Bitcoin v0.1 Released.” The Mail Archive, January 9, 2009. http://www.mail-archive.com/cryptography@metzdowd.com/msg10142.html.

7 ———. “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System.” (publishing data unavailable) https://bitcoin.org/bitcoin.pdf.

8 Extended from: Sigal, M. “You Say You Want a Revolution? It’s Called Post-PC Computing.” Radar (O’Reilly), October 24, 2011. http://radar.oreilly.com/2011/10/post-pc-revolution.html.

9 Gartner. “Gartner Says the Internet of Things Installed Base Will Grow to 26 Billion Units By 2020.” Gartner Press Release, December 12, 2013. http://www.gartner.com/newsroom/id/2636073.

10 Omohundro, S. “Cryptocurrencies, Smart Contracts, and Artificial Intelligence.” Submitted to AI Matters (Association for Computing Machinery), October 22, 2014. http://steveomohundro.com/2014/10/22/cryptocurrencies-smart-contracts-and-artificial-intelligence/.

11 Dawson, R. “The New Layer of the Economy Enabled by M2M Payments in the Internet of Things.” Trends in the Living Networks, September 16, 2014. http://rossdawsonblog.com/weblog/archives/2014/09/new-layer-economy-enabled-m2m-payments-internet-things.html.

12 Petschow, K. “Cisco Visual Networking Index Predicts Annual Internet Traffic to Grow More Than 20 Percent (Reaching 1.6 Zettabytes) by 2018.” Cisco Press Release, 2014. http://newsroom.cisco.com/release/1426270.

13 Andreessen, M. “Why Bitcoin Matters.” The New York Times, January 21, 2014. http://dealbook.nytimes.com/2014/01/21/why-bitcoin-matters/?_php=true&_type=blogs&_r=0.

14 Lamport, L., R. Shostack, and M. Pease. (1982). “The Byzantine Generals Problem.” ACM Transactions on Programming Languages and Systems 4, no. 3: 382–401; Philipp (handle). (2014). “Bitcoin and the Byzantine Generals Problem—A Crusade Is Needed? A Revolution?” Financial Cryptographyhttp://financialcryptography.com/mt/archives/001522.html; Vaurum (handle name). (2014). “A Mathematical Model for Bitcoin.” (blog post). http://blog.vaurum.com/a-mathematical-model-for-bitcoin/.

15 Cipher (handle name). “The Current State of Coin-Mixing Services.” Depp.Dot.Web, May 25, 2014. http://www.deepdotweb.com/2014/05/25/current-state-coin-mixing-services/.

16 Rizzo, P. “Coinify Raises Millions to Build Europe’s Complete Bitcoin Solution.” CoinDesk, September 26, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/coinify-raises-millions-build-europes-complete-bitcoin-solution/.

17 Patterson, J. “Intuit Adds BitPay to PayByCoin.” Bitpay Blog, November 11, 2014. http://blog.bitpay.com/2014/11/11/intuit-adds-bitpay-to-paybycoin.html.

18 Hajdarbegovic, N. “Deloitte: Media ‘Distracting’ from Bitcoin’s Disruptive Potential.” CoinDesk, June 30, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/deloitte-media-distracting-bitcoins-disruptive-potential/; Anonymous. “Remittances: Over the Sea and Far Away.” The Economist, May 19, 2012. http://www.economist.com/node/21554740.

19 Levine, A.B. and A.M. Antonopoulos. “Let’s Talk Bitcoin! #149: Price and Popularity.” Let’s Talk Bitcoin podcast, September 30, 2014. http://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/lets-talk-bitcoin-149-price-and-popularity.

20 Kitco News. “2013: Year of the Bitcoin.” Forbes, December 10, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/kitconews/2013/12/10/2013-year-of-the-bitcoin/.

21 Gough, N. “Bitcoin Value Sinks After Chinese Exchange Move.” The New York Times, December 18, 2013. http://www.nytimes.com/2013/12/19/business/international/china-bitcoin-exchange-ends-renminbi-deposits.html?_r=0.

22 Hajdarbegovic, N. “Yuan Trades Now Make Up Over 70% of Bitcoin Volume.” CoinDesk, September 5, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/yuan-trades-now-make-70-bitcoin-volume/.

23 Vigna, P. “CNET Founder Readies Bitreserve Launch in Bid to Quell Bitcoin Volatility.” The Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/10/22/cnet-founder-readies-bitreserve-launch-in-bid-to-quell-bitcoin-volatility/.

24 Casey, M.J. “Dollar-Backed Digital Currency Aims to Fix Bitcoin’s Volatility Dilemma.” The Wall Street Journal, July 8, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/07/08/dollar-backed-digital-currency-aims-to-fix-bitcoins-volatility-dilemma/.

25 Rizzo, P. “Coinapult Launches LOCKS, Aiming to Eliminate Bitcoin Price Volatility.” CoinDesk, July 29, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/coinapult-launches-locks-tool-eliminate-bitcoin-price-volatility/.

26 Yang, S. “China Bans Financial Companies from Bitcoin Transactions.” Bloomberg, December 5, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-12-05/china-s-pboc-bans-financial-companies-from-bitcoin-transactions.html.

27 Orsini, L. “A Year in Bitcoin: Why We’ll Still Care About the Cryptocurrency Even If It Fades.” ReadWrite, December 30, 2013. http://readwrite.com/2013/12/30/bitcoin-may-fade-2014-prediction.

28 Bitcoin Embassy. “Andreas M. Antonopoulos Educates Senate of Canada About Bitcoin.” YouTube, October 8, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xUNGFZDO8mM.

29 Robertson, M. and R. Bramanathan. “ATO Ruling Disappointing for Bitcoin in Australia.” Lexology, August 21, 2014. http://www.lexology.com/library/detail.aspx?g=aee6a563-ab32-442d-8575-67a940527882.

30 Hern, A. “Bitcoin Is Legally Property, Says US IRS. Does That Kill It as a Currency?” The Guardian, March 31, 2014. http://www.theguardian.com/technology/2014/mar/31/bitcoin-legally-property-irs-currencySee also: http://www.irs.gov/pub/irs-drop/n-14-21.pdf.

31 U.S. Government Accountability Office. (2014). “Virtual Currencies: Emerging Regulatory, Law Enforcement, and Consumer Protection Challenges. GAO-14-496.” Published: May 29, 2014. Publicly released: June 26, 2014. http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-14-496. Pages 12–20 explain how each of the relevant federal agencies (FinCEN, banking regulators, CFPB, SEC, CFTC, and DOJ) conduct supervision of Bitcoin or virtual currency or related enforcement. See also: “Virtual Economies and Currencies: Additional IRS Guidance Could Reduce Tax Compliance Risks.” http://www.gao.gov/products/GAO-13-516.

32 Nakamoto, S. “Re: Transactions and Scripts: DUP HASH160 ... EQUALVERIFY CHECKSIG.” Bitcointalk, June 17, 2010. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=195.msg1611#msg1611.

33 Swanson, T. “Blockchain 2.0—Let a Thousand Chains Blossom.” Let’s Talk Bitcoin!, April 8, 2014. http://letstalkbitcoin.com/blockchain-2-0-let-a-thousand-chains-blossom/.

34 “The Mega-Master Blockchain List,” posted March 11, 2014, Ledra Capital, http://ledracapital.com/blog/2014/3/11/bitcoin-series-24-the-mega-master-blockchain-list.

35 Casey, M.J. “Ripple Signs First Two U.S. Banks to Bitcoin-Inspired Payments Network.” The Wall Street Journal, September 24, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/09/24/ripple-signs-first-two-u-s-banks-to-bitcoin-inspired-payments-network/.

36 Prisco, G. “Spanish Bank Bankinter Invests in Bitcoin Startup Coinffeine.” CryptoCoins News, updated November 17, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/spanish-bank-bankinter-invests-bitcoin-startup-coinffeine/.

37 Mac, R. “PayPal Takes Baby Step Toward Bitcoin, Partners with Cryptocurrency Processors.” Forbes, September 23, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/ryanmac/2014/09/23/paypal-takes-small-step-toward-bitcoin-partners-with-cryptocurrency-processors/.

38 Bensinger, G. “eBay Payments Unit in Talks to Accept Bitcoin.” The Wall Street Journal, August 14, 2014. http://online.wsj.com/articles/ebay-payment-unit-in-talks-to-accept-bitcoin-1408052917.

39 Cordell, D. “Fidor Bank Partners with Kraken to Create Cryptocurrency Bank.” CryptoCoins News, updated November 2, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/fidor-bank-partners-kraken-create-cryptocurrency-bank/.

40 Casey, M.J. “TeraExchange Unveils First U.S.-Regulated Bitcoin Swaps Exchange.” The Wall Street Journal, September 12, 2014. http://teraexchange.com/news/2014_9_12_Tera_WSJ.pdf.

41 Rizzo, P. “Buttercoin Bids to Take US Business from Global Bitcoin Exchanges.” CoinDesk, November 5, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/buttercoin-bids-take-us-business-global-bitcoin-exchanges/See also:https://www.wedbush.com/sites/default/files/pdf/2014_11_14_Buttercoin_WEDBUSH.pdf.

42 Metz, C. “Overstock.com Assembles Coders to Create a Bitcoin-Like Stock Market.” Wired, October 6, 2014. http://www.wired.com/2014/10/overstock-com-assembles-coders-build-bitcoin-like-stock-market/.

43 Ayral, S. “Bitcoin 2.0 Crowdfunding Is Real Crowdfunding.” TechCrunch, October 17, 2014. http://techcrunch.com/2014/10/17/bitcoin-2-0-crowdfunding-is-real-crowdfunding/.

44 Hofman, A. “Bitcoin Crowdfunding Platform Swarm Announces First Decentralized Demo Day.” Bitcoin Magazine, September 30, 2014. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/16890/bitcoin-crowdfunding-platform-swarm-announces-first-decentralized-demo-day/.

45 Casey, M.J. “BitBeat: Apple Loves Bitcoin Again, Maybe.” The Wall Street Journal, June 30, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/06/03/bitbeat-apple-loves-bitcoin-again-maybe/.

46 Higgins, S. “Crowdfunding Platform Swarm Announces First Class of Startups.” CoinDesk, October 17, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/swarm-first-class-startups-crowdfunding-platform/.

47 Rizzo, P. “How Koinify and Melotic Plan to Bring Order to Crypto Crowdsales.” CoinDesk, November 14, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/koinify-melotic-plan-bring-order-crypto-crowdsales/.

48 Higgins, S. “Koinify Raises $1 Million for Smart Corporation Crowdfunding Platform.” CoinDesk, September 17, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/koinify-1-million-smart-corporation-crowdfunding/.

49 Southurst, J. “BitFlyer Launches Japan’s First Bitcoin Crowdfunding Platform.” CoinDesk, September 10, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/bitflyer-launches-japans-first-bitcoin-crowdfunding-platform/.

50 Swan, M. “Singularity University Live Prediction Markets Simulation and Big Data Quantitative Indicators.” Slideshare, updated July 11, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/singularity-university-live-prediction-markets-simulation-big-data-indicators.

51 No relation to this author!

52 Swan, M. “Identity Authentication and Security Access 2.0.” Broader Perspective blog, April 7, 2013. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2013/04/identity-authentication-and-security.html.

53 Szabo, N. “Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks.” First Monday, September 1, 1997. http://firstmonday.org/ojs/index.php/fm/article/view/548/469 as expounded by Hearn, M. (2014). Bitcoin Wiki. https://en.bitcoin.it/wiki/Smart_Property.

54 Swanson, T. Great Chain of Numbers: A Guide to Smart Contracts, Smart Property, and Trustless Asset Management.

55 Hajdarbegovic, N. “Coinprism Releases Colored Coins Android App for Mobile Asset Transfer.” CoinDesk, October 20, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/coinprism-mobile-wallet-colored-coins/.

56 De Filippi, P. “Primavera De Filippi on Ethereum: Freenet or Skynet? The Berkman Center for Internet and Society at Harvard University.” YouTube, April 15, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=slhuidzccpI.

57 Ibid.

58 GSB Daily Blog. “Bitcoinomics, Chap. 11: The Future of Money and Property or the Gospel Of Layers.” GoldSilverBitcoin, August 18, 2013. https://www.goldsilverbitcoin.com/future-of-money-bitcoinomic/.

59 Carney, M. Growing Pains: Stellar Stumbles Briefly Amid Its Launch of a New Crypto-Currency Platform.” PandoDaily, August 5, 2014. http://pando.com/2014/08/05/growing-pains-stellar-stumbles-briefly-amid-its-launch-of-a-new-crypto-currency-platform/.

60 Benet, J. “IPFS—Content Addressed, Versioned, P2P File System (DRAFT 3).” Accessed 2014. (no publishing or posting data available) http://static.benet.ai/t/ipfs.pdf.

61 Atkin, A. “TrustDavis on Ethereum.” Slideshare, June 19, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/aatkin1971/trustdavis-on-ethereum.

62 Galt, J. “Crypto Swartz Will Get You Paid for Your Great Content.” The CoinFront, June 23, 2014. http://thecoinfront.com/crypto-swartz-will-get-you-paid-for-your-great-content/.

63 Prisco, G. “Counterparty Recreates Ethereum on Bitcoin.” CryptoCoins News, updated November 12, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/counterparty-recreates-ethereum-bitcoin/See also: “Counterparty Recreates Ethereum’s Smart Contract Platform on Bitcoin.” Counterparty Press Release. http://counterparty.io/news/counterparty-recreates-ethereums-smart-contract-platform-on-bitcoin/.

64 Swan, M. “Counterparty/Ethereum: Why Bitcoin Topped $450 Today (Was Under $350 Last Week).” Broader Perspective blog, November 12, 2014. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2014/11/counterpartyethereum-why-bitcoin-topped.html.

65 “DEV PLAN,” Ethereum, accessed 2014, https://www.ethereum.org/pdfs/Ethereum-Dev-Plan-preview.pdf.

66 Finley, K. “Out in the Open: An NSA-Proof Twitter, Built with Code from Bitcoin and BitTorrent.” Wired, January 13, 2014. http://www.wired.com/2014/01/twister/.

67 Johnston, D. et al. “The General Theory of Decentralized Applications, DApps.” GitHub, June 9, 2014. https://github.com/DavidJohnstonCEO/DecentralizedApplications.

68 Babbitt, D. “Crypto-Economic Design: A Proposed Agent-Based Modeling Effort.” SwarmFest 2014: 18th Annual Meeting on Agent-Based Modeling & Simulation. University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN. June 29 through July 1, 2014.http://www3.nd.edu/~swarm06/SwarmFest2014/Crypto-economicDesignBabbit.pdf.

69 Butarin, V. “Bootstrapping a Decentralized Autonomous Corporation: Part I.” Bitcoin Magazine, September 19, 2013. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/7050/bootstrapping-a-decentralized-autonomous-corporation-part-i/; Bontje, J. “Ethereum—Decentralized Autonomous Organizations.” Slideshare, April 9, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/mids106/ethereum-decentralized-autonomous-organizations; Ethereum (EtherCasts). “Egalitarian DAO Contract Explained.” YouTube, April 3, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_gxDytSvuY.

70 Spaven, E. “Cloud Storage Startup Storj Raises 910 BTC in Crowdsale.” CoinDesk, August 22, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/cloud-storage-startup-storj-raises-910-btc-crowdsale/.

71 Marckx, C. “Storj: Next-Generation Cloud Storage Through the Blockchain.” CryptoCoins News, updated April 11, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/storj-next-generation-cloud-storage-through-the-blockchain/.

72 Levine, A.B. “Application Specific, Autonomous, Self-Bootstrapping Consensus Platforms.” Bitsharestalk forum, January 1, 2014. https://bitsharestalk.org/index.php?topic=1854.0.

73 Swan, M. “Automatic Markets.” Broader Perspective blog, August 23, 2009. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2009/08/automatic-markets.html.

74 Hearn, M. “Future of Money (and Everything Else).” Edinburgh Turing Festival. YouTube, August 23, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu4PAMFPo5Y.

75 Moshinsky, B. et al. “WikiLeaks Finds Snowden Cash Bump Elusive.” Bloomberg Businessweek, July 11, 2013. http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2013-07-11/wikileaks-finds-snowden-cash-bump-elusive.

76 Gilson, D. “What Are Namecoins and .bit Domains?” CoinDesk, June 18, 2013. http://www.coindesk.com/what-are-namecoins-and-bit-domains/.

77 ———. “Developers Attempt to Resurrect Namecoin After Fundamental Flaw Discovered.” CoinDesk, October 28, 2013. http://www.coindesk.com/namecoin-flaw-patch-needed/.

78 Wong, J.I. “Trend Micro Report Finds Criminals Unlikely to Abuse Namecoin.” CoinDesk, July 18, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/trend-micro-report-finds-criminals-unlikely-abuse-namecoin/.

79 McArdle, R. and D. Sancho. “Bitcoin Domains: A Trend Micro Research Paper.” Trend Micro, accessed 2013 (publishing data unavailable). http://www.trendmicro.com.au/cloud-content/us/pdfs/security-intelligence/white-papers/wp-bitcoin-domains.pdf.

80 Michael J. “Dotp2p Demo Video.” YouTube, July 10, 2014. https://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=youtu.be&v=qeweF05tT50&app=desktop.

81 BTC Geek. “Bitshares DNS KeyID Starts Trading.” BTC Geek blog, accessed 2014 (publishing data unavailable). http://btcgeek.com/bitshares-dns-keyid-starts-trading/.

82 Twitter. “Tweets Still Must Flow.” Twitter Blog, January 26, 2012. https://blog.twitter.com/2012/tweets-still-must-flow.

83 Dollentas, N. “Exclusive Q&A with Joseph Fiscella: Florincoin and Decentralized Applications.” Bitoinist.net, June 22, 2014. http://bitcoinist.net/exclusive-qa-with-joseph-fiscella-florincoin-and-decentralized-applications/.

84 Chaffin, B. “The NSA Can Listen to Skype Calls (Thanks to Microsoft).” The Mac Observer, July 11, 2013. http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/the-nsa-can-listen-to-skype-calls-thanks-to-microsoft; Goodin, D. Encrypted or Not, Skype Communications Prove ‘Vital’ to NSA Surveillance.” Ars Technica, May 13, 2014. http://arstechnica.com/security/2014/05/encrypted-or-not-skype-communications-prove-vital-to-nsa-surveillance/.

85 Brin, D. The Transparent Society: Will Technology Force Us to Choose Between Privacy and Freedom? Cambridge, MA: Perseus Books Group, 1999.

86 Chaffin, B. “The NSA Can Listen to Skype Calls (Thanks to Microsoft).” The Mac Observer, July 11, 2013. http://www.macobserver.com/tmo/article/the-nsa-can-listen-to-skype-calls-thanks-to-microsoft.

87 Dourado, E. “Can Namecoin Obsolete ICANN (and More)?” The Ümlaut, February 5, 2014. http://theumlaut.com/2014/02/05/namecoin-icann/.

88 Rizzo, P. “How OneName Makes Bitcoin Payments as Simple as Facebook Sharing.” CoinDesk, March 27, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/onename-makes-bitcoin-payments-simple-facebook-sharing/.

89 Higgins, S. “Authentication Protocol BitID Lets Users ‘Connect with Bitcoin.’” CoinDesk, May 7, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/authentication-protocol-bitid-lets-users-connect-bitcoin/.

90 Rohan, M. “Multi-Factor Authentication Market Worth $10.75 Billion by 2020.” Markets and Markets, accessed 2014 (publishing data unavailable). http://www.marketsandmarkets.com/PressReleases/multi-factor-authentication.asp.

91 Antonopoulos, A.M. “Bitcoin Neutrality.” Bitcoin 2013 Conference, May 18, 2013, San Jose, CA. YouTube, June 10, 2013. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BT8FXQN-9-A.

92 Senbonzakura (handle name). “Islamic Bank of Bitcoin.” Bitcoin Forum, June 24, 2011. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=21732.0.

93 Chaia, A. et al. “Half the World Is Unbanked.” McKinsey & Co, March 2009. http://mckinseyonsociety.com/half-the-world-is-unbanked/.

94 “2013 FDIC National Survey of Unbanked and Underbanked Households,” U.S. Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation, updated October 28, 2014, https://www.fdic.gov/householdsurvey/.

95 Mims, C. “M-Pesa: 31% of Kenya’s GDP Is Spent Through Mobile Phones.” Quartz, February 27, 2013. http://qz.com/57504/31-of-kenyas-gdp-is-spent-through-mobile-phones/.

96 Cawrey, D. “37Coins Plans Worldwide Bitcoin Access with SMS-Based Wallet.” CoinDesk, May 20, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/37coins-plans-worldwide-bitcoin-access-sms-based-wallet/.

97 Rizzo, P. “How Kipochi Is Taking Bitcoin into Africa.” CoinDesk, April 25, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/kipochi-taking-bitcoin-africa/.

98 It is not impossible that two files could produce the same hash, but the chance is one in trillions of trillions or more.

99 Cawrey, D. “How Bitcoin’s Technology Could Revolutionize Intellectual Property Rights.” CoinDesk, May 8, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/how-block-chain-technology-is-working-to-transform-intellectual-property/.

100 Kirk, J. “Could the Bitcoin Network Be Used as an Ultrasecure Notary Service?” Computerworld, May 23, 2013. http://www.computerworld.com/article/2498077/desktop-apps/could-the-bitcoin-network-be-used-as-an-ultrasecure-notary-service-.html.

101 Morgan, P. “Using Blockchain Technology to Prove Existence of a Document.” Empowered Law, accessed 2014. http://empoweredlaw.wordpress.com/2014/03/11/using-blockchain-technology-to-prove-existence-of-a-document/.

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108 Prisco, G. “Bitcoin Governance 2.0: Let’s Block-chain Them.” CryptoCoins News, updated October 13, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/bitcoin-governance-2-0-lets-block-chain/.

109 Hofman, A. “Couple to Get Married on the Bitcoin Blockchain at Disney Bitcoin Conference.” Bitcoin Magazine, September 23, 2014. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/16771/couple-get-married-bitcoin-blockchain-disney-bitcoin-conference/.

110 Marty, B. “Couple Make History with World’s First Bitcoin Wedding.” PanAm Post, October 7, 2014. http://panampost.com/belen-marty/2014/10/07/couple-make-history-with-worlds-first-bitcoin-wedding/.

111 Ploshay, E. “A Word from Jeffrey Tucker: Bitcoin Is Not a Monetary System.” Bitcoin Magazine, January 3, 2014. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/9299/word-jeffrey-tucker-bitcoin-monetary-system/.

112 McMillan, R. “Hacker Dreams Up Crypto Passport Using the Tech Behind Bitcoin.” Wired, October 30, 2014. http://www.wired.com/2014/10/world_passport/; Ellis, C. “World Citizenship Project Features in Wired Magazine.” Blog post, November 1, 2014. http://chrisellis.me/world-citizenship-project-features-in-wired-magazine/.

113 De Soto, H. The Mystery of Capital: Why Capitalism Triumphs in the West and Fails Everywhere Else. New York: Basic Books, 2003.

114 Swan, M. “Crowdsourced Health Research Studies: An Important Emerging Complement to Clinical Trials in the Public Health Research Ecosystem.” J Med Internet Res 14, no. 2 (2012): e46.

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116 Deitz, J. “Decentralized Governance Whitepaper.” Quora, May 21, 2014. http://distributed-autonomous-society.quora.com/Decentralized-Governance-Whitepaper.

117 Ramos, J. “Liquid Democracy: The App That Turns Everyone into a Politician.” Shareable, January 20, 2014. http://www.shareable.net/blog/liquid-democracy-the-app-that-turns-everyone-into-a-politician.

118 Buchanan, A.E. Deciding for Others: The Ethics of Surrogate Decision Making (Studies in Philosophy and Health Policy). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

119 Carroll, L. The Principles of Parliamentary Representation. London: Harrison and Sons, 1884. https://archive.org/details/ThePrinciplesOfParliamentaryRepresentation; Black, D. “The Central Argument in Lewis Carroll’s The Principles of Parliamentary Representation.” Papers on Non-market Decision Making 3, no 1 (1967): 1–17.

120 Chaum, D. “Random-Sample Elections: Far Lower Cost, Better Quality and More Democratic.” Accessed 2012 (publishing data unavailable). www.rs-elections.com/Random-Sample%20Elections.pdf.

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122 Hanson, R. “Futarchy: Vote Values, but Bet Beliefs.” Accessed 2013 (publishing data unavailable). http://hanson.gmu.edu/futarchy2013.pdf.

123 Buterin, V. “An Introduction to Futarchy [as Applied with Blockchain Technology].” Ethereum blog, August 21, 2014. https://blog.ethereum.org/2014/08/21/introduction-futarchy/.

124 Cruz, K. “The Truth Behind Truthcoin.” Bitcoin Magazine, September 25, 2014. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/16748/truth-behind-truthcoin/.

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126 Buterin, V. “Primecoin: The Cryptocurrency Whose Mining Is Actually Useful.” Bitcoin Magazine, July 8, 2013. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/5635/primecoin-the-cryptocurrency-whose-mining-is-actually-useful/.

127 Myers, D.S., A.L. Bazinet, and M.P. Cummings. “Expanding the Reach of Grid Computing: Combining Globus-and BOINC-Based Systems.” Center for Bioinformatics and Computational Biology, Institute for Advanced Computer Studies, University of Maryland, February 6, 2007 (Draft). http://lattice.umiacs.umd.edu/latticefiles/publications/lattice/myers_bazinet_cummings.pdf.

128 Clenfield, J. and P. Alpeyev. “The Other Bitcoin Power Struggle.” Bloomberg Businessweek, April 24, 2014. http://www.businessweek.com/articles/2014-04-24/bitcoin-miners-seek-cheap-electricity-to-eke-out-a-profit.

129 Gimein, M. “Virtual Bitcoin Mining Is a Real-World Environmental Disaster.” Bloomberg, April 12, 2013. http://www.bloomberg.com/news/2013-04-12/virtual-bitcoin-mining-is-a-real-world-environmental-disaster.html.

130 Worstall, T. “Fascinating Number: Bitcoin Mining Uses $15 Million’s Worth of Electricity Every Day.” Forbes, December 3, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/timworstall/2013/12/03/fascinating-number-bitcoin-mining-uses-15-millions-worth-of-electricity-every-day/.

131 Tapscott, D. and A.D. Williams. Wikinomics: How Mass Collaboration Changes Everything. New York: Penguin Group, 2008.

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133 Vigna, P. and M.J. Casey. “BitBeat: Could Bitcoin Help Fight the Ebola Crisis?” The Wall Street Journal, October 8, 2014. http://blogs.wsj.com/moneybeat/2014/10/08/bitbeat-could-bitcoin-help-fight-the-ebola-crisis/.

134 Cawrey, D. “37Coins Plans Worldwide Bitcoin Access with SMS-Based Wallet.” CoinDesk, May 20, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/37coins-plans-worldwide-bitcoin-access-sms-based-wallet/.

135 Rizzo, P. “How Kipochi Is Taking Bitcoin into Africa.” CoinDesk, April 25, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/kipochi-taking-bitcoin-africa/.

136 Mims, C. “M-Pesa: 31% of Kenya’s GDP Is Spent Through Mobile Phones.” Quartz, February 27, 2013. http://qz.com/57504/31-of-kenyas-gdp-is-spent-through-mobile-phones/.

137 Buterin, V. “Sean’s Outpost Announces Satoshi Forest, Nine-Acre Sanctuary for the Homeless.” Bitcoin Magazine, September 9, 2013. http://bitcoinmagazine.com/6939/seans-outpost-announces-satoshi-forest/.

138 Green, R. and N.A. Farahany. “Regulation: The FDA Is Overcautious on Consumer Genomics.” Nature, January 15, 2014. http://www.nature.com/news/regulation-the-fda-is-overcautious-on-consumer-genomics-1.14527.

139 Wright, C. et al. “People Have a Right to Access Their Own Genetic Information.” Genomes Unzipped: Personal Public Genomes, November 3, 2011. http://genomesunzipped.org/2011/03/people-have-a-right-to-access-their-own-genetic-information.php.

140 Green, R.C. et al. “Disclosure of APOE Genotype for Risk of Alzheimer’s Disease.” New England Journal of Medicine 361 (July 16, 2009):245–54. http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMoa0809578 and discussed in further detail at http://www.genomes2people.org/director/.

141 Regalado, A. “The FDA Ordered 23andMe to Stop Selling Its Health Tests. But for the Intrepid, Genome Knowledge Is Still Available.” MIT Technology Review, October 19, 2014. http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/531461/how-a-wiki-is-keeping-direct-to-consumer-genetics-alive/.

142 DeCODEme. “Sales of Genetic Scans Direct to Consumer Through deCODEme Have Been Discontinued! Existing Customers Can Access Their Results Here Until January 1st 2015.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/DeCODE_genetics.

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144 Swan, M. “Health 2050: The Realization of Personalized Medicine Through Crowdsourcing, the Quantified Self, and the Participatory Biocitizen.” J Pers Med 2, no. 3 (2012): 93–118.

145 ———. “Multigenic Condition Risk Assessment in Direct-to-Consumer Genomic Services. Genet Med 12, no. 5 (2010): 279–88; Kido, T. et al. “Systematic Evaluation of Personal Genome Services for Japanese Individuals.” Nature: Journal of Human Genetics 58 (2013):734–41.

146 Tamblyn, T. “Backup Your DNA Using Bitcoins.” Huffington Post UK, October 30, 2014. http://www.huffingtonpost.co.uk/2014/10/30/genecoin-genome-backup-bitcoin_n_6076366.html.

147 Grens, K. “Cloud-Based Genomics.” The Scientist, October 28, 2013. http://www.the-scientist.com/?articles.view/articleNo/38044/title/Cloud-Based-Genomics/.

148 Jiang, K. “University of Chicago to Establish Genomic Data Commons.” University of Chicago News, December 2, 2014. http://news.uchicago.edu/article/2014/12/02/university-chicago-establish-genomic-data-commons.

149 Swan, M. “Blockchain Health—Remunerative Health Data Commons & HealthCoin RFPs.” Broader Perspective blog, September 28, 2014. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2014/09/blockchain-health-remunerative-health.html.

150 HL7 Standards. “20 Questions for Health IT #5: Bitcoin & Blockchain Technology.” HL7 Standards, September 8, 2014. http://www.hl7standards.com/blog/2014/09/08/20hit-5/.

151 Zimmerman, J. “DNA Block Chain Project Boosts Research, Preserves Patient Anonymity.” CoinDesk, June 27, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/israels-dna-bits-moves-beyond-currency-with-genes-blockchain/.

152 Swan, M. “Quantified Self Ideology: Personal Data Becomes Big Data.” Slideshare, February 6, 2014. http://www.slideshare.net/lablogga/quantified-self-ideology-personal-data-becomes-big-data.

153 Levine, A.B. “Let’s Talk Bitcoin! #158: Ebola and the Body Blockchain with Kevin J. McKernan.” Let’s Talk Bitcoin podcast, November 1, 2014. http://letstalkbitcoin.com/blog/post/lets-talk-bitcoin-158-ebola-and-the-body-blockchain.

154 McKernan, K. “Niemann-Pick Type C & Ebolavirus: Bitcoin Community Comes Together to Advocate and Fund Open Source Ebolavirus Research.” Medicinal Genomics, accessed 2014 (publishing data unavailable). http://www.medicinalgenomics.com/niemann-pick-type-c-and-ebola/.

155 Anonymous. “The Evolving Genetics of HIV: Can Genes Stop HIV?” The Tech Museum of Innovation, (publishing data unavailable). http://genetics.thetech.org/original_news/news13.

156 Anonymous. “Unreliable Research. Trouble at the Lab.” The Economist, October 17, 2013 (paywall restricted). http://www.economist.com/news/briefing/21588057-scientists-think-science-self-correcting-alarming-degree-it-not-trouble.

157 Schmidt, M. and H. Lipson. “Distilling Free-Form Natural Laws from Experimental Data.” Science 324, no. 5923 (2009): 81–5. http://creativemachines.cornell.edu/sites/default/files/Science09_Schmidt.pdf; Keim, B. “Computer Program Self-Discovers Laws of Physics.” Wired, April 2, 2009. http://www.wired.com/2009/04/newtonai/.

158 Muggleton, S. “Developing Robust Synthetic Biology Designs Using a Microfluidic Robot Scientist. Advances in Artificial Intelligence—SBIA 2008.” Lecture notes in Computer Science 5249 (2008):4. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-540-88190-2_3.

159 Waltz, D. and BG Buchanan. “Automating Science.” Science 324, no. 5923 (2009): 43–4. http://www.sciencemag.org/content/324/5923/43.

160 Higgins, S. “Sidechains White Paper Imagines New Future for Digital Currency Development.” Coindesk, October 23, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/sidechains-white-paper-ecosystem-reboot/; Back, A. et al. “Enabling Blockchain Innovations with Pegged Sidechains.” Accessed 2014 (publishing data unavailable). http://www.blockstream.com/sidechains.pdf.

161 daCosta, F. Rethinking the Internet of Things: A Scalable Approach to Connecting Everything. New York: Apress, 2013.

162 Deleuze, G. Cinema 2: The Time-Image. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1989.

163 Heidegger, M. Being and Time. New York: Harper Perennial Modern Classics, 1927.

164 Crackerhead (handle name). “Mining LTBCoin.” BitcoinTalk.org forum, July 27, 2014. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=712944.0.

165 von Hayek, F.A. Denationalization of Money: An Analysis of the Theory and Practice of Concurrent Currencies. London: Institute of Economic Affairs, 1977.

166 ———. “The ‘Paradox’ of Saving.” Economica, no. 32 (1931).

167 Blumen, R. “Hayek on the Paradox of Saving.” Ludwig von Mises Institute, January 9, 2008. http://mises.org/daily/2804.

168 Ferrara, P. “Rethinking Money: The Rise Of Hayek’s Private Competing Currencies.” Forbes, March 1, 2013. http://www.forbes.com/sites/peterferrara/2013/03/01/rethinking-money-the-rise-of-hayeks-private-competing-currencies/.

169 Wong, J.I. “MIT Undergrads Can Now Claim Their Free $100 in Bitcoin.” CoinDesk, October 29, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/mit-undergrads-can-now-claim-free-100-bitcoin/.

170 Rizzo, P. “70,000 Caribbean Island Residents to Receive Bitcoin in 2015.” CoinDesk, August 28, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/70000-caribbean-island-residents-receive-bitcoin-2015/.

171 Cawrey, D. “Auroracoin Airdrop: Will Iceland Embrace a National Digital Currency?” CoinDesk, March 24, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/auroracoin-airdrop-iceland-embrace-national-digital-currency/.

172 Khaosan, V. “Ecuador: The First Nation to Create Its Own Digital Currency.” CryptoCoins News, updated August 1, 2014. https://www.cryptocoinsnews.com/ecuador-first-nation-create-digital-currency/.

173 Hamill, J. “The Battle of Little Bitcoin: Native American Tribe Launches Its Own Cryptocurrency.” Forbes, February 27, 2014. http://www.forbes.com/sites/jasperhamill/2014/02/27/the-battle-of-little-bitcoin-native-american-tribe-launches-its-own-cryptocurrency/.

174 Lietaerm, B. and J. Dunne. Rethinking Money: How New Currencies Turn Scarcity into Prosperity London: Berrett-Koehler Publishers, 2013.

175 Swan, M. “Social Economic Networks and the New Intangibles.” Broader Perspective blog, August 15, 2010. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2010/08/social-economic-networks-and-new.html.

176 ———. “New Banks, New Currencies, and New Markets in a Multicurrency World: Roadmap for a Post-Scarcity Economy by 2050.” Create Futures IberoAmérica, Enthusiasmo Cultural, São Paolo Brazil, October 14, 2009.

177 ———. “Connected World Wearables Free Cognitive Surplus.” Broader Perspective blog, October 26, 2014. http://futurememes.blogspot.com/2014/10/connected-world-frees-cognitive-surplus.html.

178 Lee, T.B. “Bitcoin Needs to Scale by a Factor of 1000 to Compete with Visa. Here’s How to Do It.” The Washington Post, November 12, 2013. http://www.washingtonpost.com/blogs/the-switch/wp/2013/11/12/bitcoin-needs-to-scale-by-a-factor-of-1000-to-compete-with-visa-heres-how-to-do-it/.

179 Spaven, E. “The 12 Best Answers from Gavin Andresen’s Reddit AMA.” CoinDesk, October 21, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/12-answers-gavin-andresen-reddit-ama/.

180 Prashar, V. “What Is Bitcoin 51% Attack, Should I Be Worried?” BTCpedia, April 21, 2013. http://www.btcpedia.com/bitcoin-51-attack/.

181 Rizzo, P. “Ghash.io: We Will Never Launch a 51% Attack Against Bitcoin.” CoinDesk, June 16, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/ghash-io-never-launch-51-attack/.

182 Courtois, N. “How to Upgrade the Bitcoin Elliptic Curve.” Financial Cryptography, Bitcoin, Crypto Currencies blog, November 16, 2014. http://blog.bettercrypto.com/?p=1008.

183 Ibid.

184 Kwon, J. “Tendermint: Consensus Without Mining” Accessed 2014 (white paper). http://tendermint.com/docs/tendermint.pdf.

185 ———. “Tendermint Consensus Proposal.” Bitcoin forum, November 20, 2014. https://bitcointalk.org/index.php?topic=866460.0. See also tendermint.com/posts/security-of-cryptocurrency-protocols/.

186 Anonymous. “The Troubling Holes in MtGox’s Account of How It Lost $600 Million in Bitcoins.” MIT Technology Review, April 4, 2014. http://www.technologyreview.com/view/526161/the-troubling-holes-in-mtgoxs-account-of-how-it-lost-600-million-in-bitcoins/.

187 Collier, K. “Moolah CEO Accused of Disappearing with $1.4 Million in Bitcoin.” Daily Dot, October 21, 2014. http://www.dailydot.com/politics/moolah-dogecoin-alex-green-ryan-kennedy-ryan-gentle-millions-missing-mintpal/.

188 Pick, L. “Nearly $2 Million Worth of Vericoin Stolen from MintPal, Hard Fork Implemented.” Digital Currency Magnates, July 15, 2014. http://dcmagnates.com/nearly-2-million-worth-of-vericoin-stolen-from-mintpal-hard-fork-considered/.

189 Greenberg, A. “Hacker Hijacks Storage Devices, Mines $620,000 in Dogecoin.” Wired, June 17, 2014. http://www.wired.com/2014/06/hacker-hijacks-storage-devices-mines-620000-in-dogecoin/.

190 Swan, M. “Scaling Crowdsourced Health Studies: The Emergence of a New Form of Contract Research Organization.” Pers Med. 9, no. 2 (2012): 223–34.

191 Reitman, R. “Beware the BitLicense: New York’s Virtual Currency Regulations Invade Privacy and Hamper Innovation.” Electronic Frontier Foundation, October 15, 2014. https://www.eff.org/deeplinks/2014/10/beware-bitlicense-new-yorks-virtual-currency-regulations-invade-privacy-and-hamper.

192 Santori, M. “What New York’s Proposed Regulations Mean for Bitcoin Businesses.” CoinDesk, July 18, 2014. http://www.coindesk.com/new-yorks-proposed-regulations-mean-bitcoin-businesses/.

193 Cowen, T. Average Is Over: Powering America Beyond the Age of the Great Stagnation. New York: Dutton Publishing, 2013.

194 Antonopoulos, A.M. Mastering Bitcoin: Unlocking Digital Crypto-Currencies. Sebastopol, CA: O’Reilly Media, 2014.

195 Bostrom, N. Superintelligence: Paths, Dangers, Strategies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2014.

196 Swan, M. “Blockchain-Enforced Friendly AI.” Crypto Money Expo, December 5, 2014. http://cryptomoneyexpo.com/expos/inv2/#schedule and http://youtu.be/qdGoRep5iT0/.