## The Mastery of Computer Programming: Primary Algorithms - Sykalo Eugene 2023

# Basic concepts

Dynamic Programming

## Algorithm Design

Algorithm design is the process of creating a set of step-by-step instructions to solve a problem. This section will cover the basic concepts of algorithm design, including problem-solving techniques such as divide and conquer, greedy algorithms, and dynamic programming.

### Divide and Conquer

The divide and conquer technique involves breaking down a complex problem into smaller sub-problems. Each sub-problem is then solved recursively until the entire problem is solved. This technique is often used in sorting algorithms such as merge sort and quicksort.

### Greedy Algorithms

Greedy algorithms are a class of algorithms that make the locally optimal choice at each step with the hope of finding a global optimum. This technique is often used in optimization problems, such as the minimum spanning tree problem.

### Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming is a technique for solving problems by breaking them down into smaller sub-problems and storing the solutions to these sub-problems to avoid redundant computation. This technique is often used in optimization problems such as the Knapsack problem and the Longest Common Subsequence problem.

## Data Structures

Data structures are essential in programming as they allow data to be stored and organized efficiently. In this section, we will discuss the importance of data structures in algorithm design. We will cover topics such as arrays, linked lists, trees, graphs, and hash tables.

### Arrays

Arrays are a fundamental data structure that allows for the storage of a collection of elements of the same type. Elements in an array are accessed using an index, which starts at 0 for the first element. Arrays are used in a variety of algorithms, such as sorting algorithms and searching algorithms.

### Linked Lists

Linked lists are a data structure that consists of a sequence of nodes, each containing a reference to the next node in the sequence. This allows for efficient insertion and deletion of elements within the list. Linked lists are often used in algorithms such as graph algorithms and memory allocation.

### Trees

Trees are a data structure that consists of nodes connected by edges. Each node in a tree has a parent node and zero or more child nodes. Trees are often used in search algorithms and data compression algorithms.

### Graphs

Graphs are a data structure that consists of a set of vertices and a set of edges connecting them. Graphs can be directed or undirected, and can have weighted or unweighted edges. Graphs are used in a wide variety of algorithms, such as shortest path algorithms and network flow algorithms.

### Hash Tables

Hash tables are a data structure that provides fast access to data by using a hash function to map keys to array indices. Hash tables are often used in database indexing and in implementing associative arrays.

## Analysis of Algorithms

Algorithm analysis is the process of determining the amount of resources, such as time and memory, required to execute an algorithm. This section will focus on the analysis of algorithms, including time and space complexity, big-O notation, and asymptotic analysis.

### Time Complexity

Time complexity is the amount of time required to execute an algorithm as a function of the size of its input. In algorithm analysis, we typically focus on the worst-case time complexity, which represents the maximum amount of time required to execute the algorithm for any input of size n. Time complexity is typically expressed using big-O notation.

### Space Complexity

Space complexity is the amount of memory required to execute an algorithm as a function of the size of its input. Similar to time complexity, we typically focus on the worst-case space complexity, which represents the maximum amount of memory required to execute the algorithm for any input of size n.

### Big-O Notation

Big-O notation is a mathematical notation used to describe the limiting behavior of a function when the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. In algorithm analysis, we use big-O notation to describe the time or space complexity of an algorithm as a function of the size of its input.

### Asymptotic Analysis

Asymptotic analysis is the process of determining the limiting behavior of a function as the argument tends towards a particular value or infinity. In algorithm analysis, we use asymptotic analysis to describe the time or space complexity of an algorithm as a function of the size of its input.

## Searching and Sorting

Searching and sorting are two fundamental operations in computer science that are used to organize and retrieve data efficiently. In this section, we will explore various search and sort algorithms, including linear search, binary search, bubble sort, insertion sort, merge sort, quicksort, and heapsort.

### Linear Search

Linear search, also known as sequential search, is a simple search algorithm that checks each element in a list or array until it finds the target element or reaches the end of the list. The time complexity of linear search is O(n), where n is the number of elements in the list.

### Binary Search

Binary search is a more efficient search algorithm that works by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half. It requires that the list or array be sorted in ascending or descending order. The time complexity of binary search is O(log n), where n is the number of elements in the list.

### Bubble Sort

Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly steps through the list or array, compares adjacent elements and swaps them if they are in the wrong order. The time complexity of bubble sort is O(n^2), making it inefficient for large lists or arrays.

### Insertion Sort

Insertion sort is another simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted array one item at a time. It works by iterating through the list or array, comparing each item with the items before it and swapping them if necessary. The time complexity of insertion sort is O(n^2), making it inefficient for large lists or arrays.

### Merge Sort

Merge sort is a more efficient sorting algorithm that divides the list or array into smaller sub-lists and then merges them back together in sorted order. It is a divide and conquer algorithm that has a time complexity of O(n log n), making it suitable for large lists or arrays.

### Quicksort

Quicksort is another divide and conquer sorting algorithm that works by selecting a pivot element and partitioning the list or array around the pivot so that elements smaller than the pivot are on one side and elements larger than the pivot are on the other. It then recursively sorts the two partitions. The time complexity of quicksort is O(n log n), making it suitable for large lists or arrays.

### Heapsort

Heapsort is a comparison-based sorting algorithm that works by first building a heap from the list or array and then repeatedly extracting the maximum element and placing it at the end of the sorted list or array. The time complexity of heapsort is O(n log n), making it suitable for large lists or arrays.

## Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming is a technique for solving problems by breaking them down into smaller sub-problems and storing the solutions to these sub-problems to avoid redundant computation. This technique is often used in optimization problems such as the Knapsack problem and the Longest Common Subsequence problem.

Dynamic programming involves solving a problem by breaking it down into smaller sub-problems and solving each sub-problem only once. The solutions to the sub-problems are then stored in a table or array, so that they can be reused when needed. This approach can significantly reduce the time complexity of the algorithm, as it avoids redundant computation.

The basic concept of dynamic programming is to solve a problem by identifying the optimal substructure of the problem, which means that the solution to the problem can be expressed in terms of the solutions to its sub-problems. The sub-problems are then solved recursively, and their solutions are stored in a table or array for later use.

One key aspect of dynamic programming is memoization, which is the process of storing solutions to sub-problems so that they can be looked up later. This can significantly reduce the time complexity of the algorithm, as it avoids redundant computation.

Dynamic programming can be applied to a wide variety of problems, including optimization problems, graph problems, and sequence problems. Some common examples of dynamic programming problems include the Fibonacci sequence, the Knapsack problem, and the Longest Common Subsequence problem.