## The Mastery of Computer Programming: Primary Algorithms - Sykalo Eugene 2023

# Combinatorial analysis and techniques

Mathematical Preliminaries

Combinatorial analysis is a branch of mathematics that deals with counting and studying the properties of finite sets. It is an important tool in computer programming as it provides techniques for solving problems that involve finite sets, such as counting the number of ways to arrange objects or selecting subsets from a larger set. Combinatorial analysis also provides a framework for understanding the behavior of algorithms that deal with finite sets. The study of combinatorial analysis includes topics such as permutations, combinations, generating functions, recurrence relations, and graph theory. By understanding these concepts, programmers can develop more efficient algorithms and solve problems that would otherwise be too complex to solve.

## Basic Principles of Combinatorics

### Counting Principles

**Product Rule:**If there are`n`

ways to perform the first task and`m`

ways to perform the second task, then there are`n x m`

ways to perform both tasks.**Sum Rule:**If there are`n`

ways to perform the first task and`m`

ways to perform the second task, then there are`n + m`

ways to choose one of the two tasks.

### Permutations

**Definition and examples:**A permutation is an ordered arrangement of objects, and the number of permutations of`n`

objects taken`r`

at a time is given by`nPr = n! / (n - r)!`

.**Permutations of multisets:**When there are repeated objects, we use the formula`P(n1, n2, ..., nk) = n! / (n1! x n2! x ... x nk!)`

, where`n1, n2, ..., nk`

are the number of times each object occurs.

### Combinations

**Definition and examples:**A combination is an unordered selection of objects, and the number of combinations of`n`

objects taken`r`

at a time is given by`nCr = n! / (r! x (n - r)!)`

.**Combinations of multisets:**When there are repeated objects, we use the formula`C(n + r - 1, r)`

, where`n`

is the number of distinct objects and`r`

is the number of times each object occurs.

## Generating Functions

A generating function is a formal power series that encodes a sequence of numbers. The coefficients of the power series correspond to the terms in the sequence. Generating functions are useful for solving combinatorial problems because they allow us to convert a problem involving sequences into a problem involving algebraic manipulation.

There are several types of generating functions, including ordinary generating functions, exponential generating functions, and Dirichlet generating functions. Ordinary generating functions are used to count the number of ways to select objects from a set, while exponential generating functions are used to count the number of ways to arrange objects with a particular characteristic. Dirichlet generating functions are used to study multiplicative number theory functions.

Operations that can be performed on generating functions include addition, multiplication, differentiation, and integration. These operations allow us to derive new generating functions from existing ones. For example, if we have two generating functions that count the number of ways to select objects from two sets, we can derive a new generating function that counts the number of ways to select objects from the union of the two sets.

Generating functions have many applications in combinatorics, including the study of partitions, permutations, and trees. They also have applications in other areas of mathematics and science, such as physics and probability theory.

## Recurrence Relations

A recurrence relation is a mathematical equation that defines a sequence of numbers in terms of previous numbers in the sequence. Recurrence relations are used to model many real-world phenomena, such as population growth, financial markets, and signal processing.

There are two types of recurrence relations: linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients and nonhomogeneous recurrence relations. Linear homogeneous recurrence relations with constant coefficients can be solved using characteristic equations, while nonhomogeneous recurrence relations can be solved using the method of undetermined coefficients.

### Linear Homogeneous Recurrence Relations with Constant Coefficients

A linear homogeneous recurrence relation with constant coefficients is a recurrence relation of the form `an = c1 * an-1 + c2 * an-2 + ... + ck * an-k`

, where `c1, c2, ..., ck`

are constants. To solve this type of recurrence relation, we first assume that the solution is of the form `an = r^n`

and substitute it into the recurrence relation. This gives us the characteristic equation `r^k - c1 * r^(k-1) - c2 * r^(k-2) - ... - ck = 0`

. We then find the roots of the characteristic equation, which correspond to the values of `r`

that satisfy the equation. The general solution to the recurrence relation is then given by `an = A1 * r1^n + A2 * r2^n + ... + Ak * rk^n`

, where `A1, A2, ..., Ak`

are constants determined by the initial conditions.

### Nonhomogeneous Recurrence Relations

A nonhomogeneous recurrence relation is a recurrence relation of the form `an = f(n) + c1 * an-1 + c2 * an-2 + ... + ck * an-k`

, where `f(n)`

is a function of `n`

. To solve this type of recurrence relation, we first find the general solution to the associated homogeneous recurrence relation using the method described above. We then find a particular solution to the nonhomogeneous recurrence relation using the method of undetermined coefficients. The general solution to the nonhomogeneous recurrence relation is then given by the sum of the general solution to the associated homogeneous recurrence relation and the particular solution to the nonhomogeneous recurrence relation.

Recurrence relations have many applications in combinatorics, such as in the study of the Fibonacci sequence and the Catalan numbers. They also have applications in other areas of mathematics and science, such as in the study of differential equations and control theory.

## Inclusion-Exclusion Principle

The inclusion-exclusion principle is a counting technique used to calculate the size of a union of sets. It allows us to count the number of elements that belong to at least one of several sets, as well as the number of elements that belong to exactly one, exactly two, or exactly three of the sets.

The principle states that the size of the union of `n`

sets is given by the sum of the sizes of the individual sets, minus the sum of the sizes of all possible intersections of the sets, plus the sum of the sizes of all possible pairwise intersections of the sets, minus the size of the intersection of all the sets. In mathematical notation, this can be written as:

```
|A1 U A2 U ... U An| = Sum(|Ai|) - Sum(|Ai ^ Aj|) + Sum(|Ai ^ Aj ^ Ak|) - ... + (-1)^(n-1) * |A1 ^ A2 ^ ... ^ An|
```

where `|S|`

denotes the number of elements in set `S`

, `^`

denotes intersection, and `U`

denotes union.

The inclusion-exclusion principle can be used to solve a variety of combinatorial problems, such as counting the number of integers less than `n`

that are divisible by `a`

or `b`

, counting the number of permutations of a set that leave some elements fixed, and counting the number of derangements of a set.

For example, suppose we want to count the number of integers less than `1000`

that are divisible by `3`

or `5`

. We can use the inclusion-exclusion principle to solve this problem as follows:

- The number of integers less than
`1000`

that are divisible by`3`

is`333`

. - The number of integers less than
`1000`

that are divisible by`5`

is`200`

. - The number of integers less than
`1000`

that are divisible by both`3`

and`5`

(i.e., by`15`

) is`66`

. - Therefore, the number of integers less than
`1000`

that are divisible by`3`

or`5`

is`333 + 200 - 66 = 467`

.

The inclusion-exclusion principle is a powerful tool for solving combinatorial problems that involve sets. By understanding this principle, programmers can develop more efficient algorithms and solve problems that would otherwise be too complex to solve.

### Graph Theory

### Basic Concepts

**Graphs, vertices, edges:**A graph is a collection of vertices (also called nodes) and edges (also called arcs or links) that connect pairs of vertices. Vertices are represented by dots or circles, while edges are represented by lines connecting the vertices.**Paths, cycles, connectivity:**A path is a sequence of edges connecting two vertices. A cycle is a path that starts and ends at the same vertex. A graph is connected if there is a path between any two vertices.

### Trees

**Definition and examples:**A tree is a connected acyclic graph. In other words, it is a graph that does not contain any cycles. Trees are useful in many areas of computer science, such as data structures and algorithms.**Spanning Trees:**A spanning tree of a graph is a tree that contains all of the vertices of the graph. Spanning trees are useful for finding the minimum set of edges needed to connect a graph.

### Graph Coloring

**Definition and examples:**Graph coloring is the assignment of colors to the vertices of a graph such that no two adjacent vertices have the same color. The minimum number of colors needed to color a graph is called the chromatic number.**Applications:**Graph coloring has applications in many areas of computer science, such as scheduling, register allocation, and compilers. It is also used in other fields, such as sociology and political science, to model social networks and voting patterns.

Graph theory is an important area of mathematics and computer science that has many applications in a variety of fields. By understanding the basic concepts of graphs, trees, and graph coloring, programmers can develop more efficient algorithms and solve problems that would otherwise be too complex to solve.