## The Mastery of Computer Programming: Primary Algorithms - Sykalo Eugene 2023

# Algebraic and transcendental numbers

Mathematical Preliminaries

In this section, we will introduce the concept of algebraic and transcendental numbers and their significance in computer programming. Algebraic numbers are defined as the roots of polynomial equations with integer coefficients, while transcendental numbers are numbers that are not algebraic. We will discuss the properties of algebraic and transcendental numbers, including their relationship to real numbers and their significance in solving mathematical problems.

We will also explore the different types of algorithms used to work with algebraic and transcendental numbers, including root-finding algorithms and numerical integration algorithms. These algorithms are used to solve equations involving algebraic and transcendental numbers and are an important tool for computer programmers.

We will discuss some of the applications of algebraic and transcendental numbers in computer programming, including their use in cryptography and signal processing. By understanding these concepts and algorithms, programmers can develop more efficient and optimized solutions to mathematical problems.

## Sorting Algorithms

Sorting algorithms are a fundamental concept in computer science and are used to arrange elements of a list or array in a specific order. In this section, we will discuss three basic sorting algorithms: bubble sort, insertion sort, and quicksort.

### Bubble Sort

Bubble sort is a simple sorting algorithm that repeatedly swaps adjacent elements if they are in the wrong order. This algorithm is named for the way smaller elements "bubble" to the top of the list during each pass. Bubble sort has a time complexity of O(n^2) and is not efficient for large datasets. However, it is easy to implement and can be used for small lists.

### Insertion Sort

Insertion sort is another simple sorting algorithm that builds the final sorted list one element at a time. It works by repeatedly inserting a new element into the sorted portion of the list, shifting larger elements to the right as necessary. Insertion sort has a time complexity of O(n^2) and is also not efficient for large datasets. However, it is more efficient than bubble sort and can be useful for small datasets or partially sorted lists.

### Quicksort

Quicksort is a more complex sorting algorithm that uses a divide-and-conquer approach to sort elements. It works by selecting a pivot element, partitioning the list into elements smaller and larger than the pivot, and then recursively sorting each partition. Quicksort has a time complexity of O(n log n) in the average case, making it much more efficient than bubble and insertion sort. However, it can have a worst-case time complexity of O(n^2) if the pivot is not selected properly.

These three sorting algorithms are just a few examples of the many sorting algorithms available to programmers. By understanding the properties and time complexity of each algorithm, programmers can select the most efficient algorithm for their specific use case.

## Searching Algorithms

Searching algorithms are used to find a specific element in a list or array. In this section, we will discuss two basic searching algorithms: linear search and binary search.

### Linear Search

Linear search is a simple searching algorithm that starts at the beginning of a list and checks each element until the target element is found. If the target element is not in the list, the algorithm checks every element before determining that the element is not present. Linear search has a time complexity of O(n) and is not efficient for large datasets. However, it is easy to implement and can be used for small lists or unsorted lists.

### Binary Search

Binary search is a more efficient searching algorithm that works by repeatedly dividing the search interval in half. It starts by comparing the target element to the middle element of the list. If the target element is smaller, the algorithm repeats the process on the lower half of the list. If the target element is larger, the algorithm repeats the process on the upper half of the list. Binary search has a time complexity of O(log n) and is much more efficient than linear search for large datasets. However, it requires the list to be sorted before the algorithm is applied.

These two searching algorithms are just a few examples of the many searching algorithms available to programmers. By understanding the properties and time complexity of each algorithm, programmers can select the most efficient algorithm for their specific use case.

## Graph Algorithms

Graph algorithms are used to traverse and analyze graphs, which are mathematical structures used to represent relationships between objects. In this section, we will discuss three basic graph algorithms: breadth-first search, depth-first search, and Dijkstra's algorithm.

### Breadth-First Search

Breadth-first search is a graph traversal algorithm that visits all the vertices of a graph in breadth-first order. It starts at a specified vertex and visits all its neighbors before moving on to their neighbors. This algorithm is useful for finding the shortest path between two vertices in an unweighted graph. Breadth-first search has a time complexity of O(V+E), where V is the number of vertices and E is the number of edges in the graph.

### Depth-First Search

Depth-first search is a graph traversal algorithm that visits all the vertices of a graph in depth-first order. It starts at a specified vertex and explores as far as possible along each branch before backtracking. This algorithm is useful for solving problems such as finding strongly connected components and detecting cycles in a graph. Depth-first search has a time complexity of O(V+E), where V is the number of vertices and E is the number of edges in the graph.

### Dijkstra's Algorithm

Dijkstra's algorithm is a shortest path algorithm that computes the shortest path between a specified source vertex and all other vertices in a weighted graph. It works by maintaining a priority queue of vertices and their tentative distances from the source vertex. The algorithm repeatedly extracts the vertex with the smallest tentative distance and relaxes its neighboring vertices. This algorithm is useful for solving problems such as finding the shortest distance between two cities in a road network. Dijkstra's algorithm has a time complexity of O((V+E)logV), where V is the number of vertices and E is the number of edges in the graph.

These three graph algorithms are just a few examples of the many graph algorithms available to programmers. By understanding the properties and time complexity of each algorithm, programmers can select the most efficient algorithm for their specific use case.

## Dynamic Programming

Dynamic programming is a method for solving complex problems by breaking them down into simpler subproblems and solving each subproblem only once. This is achieved by storing the solutions to subproblems in a lookup table and using these solutions to solve larger problems. Dynamic programming is particularly useful for problems that involve a recursive structure, where the solution to a problem depends on the solutions to smaller subproblems.

There are two key elements to dynamic programming: optimal substructure and overlapping subproblems. Optimal substructure means that the solution to a problem can be expressed in terms of the solutions to its subproblems. Overlapping subproblems means that the same subproblems are solved multiple times during the computation. By using a lookup table to store the solutions to subproblems, dynamic programming avoids redundant computations and makes it possible to solve complex problems efficiently.

Dynamic programming can be used to solve a wide range of problems, including optimization problems, sequence alignment problems, and shortest path problems. Examples of dynamic programming algorithms include the Fibonacci sequence, the knapsack problem, and the longest common subsequence problem.

One of the advantages of dynamic programming is that it can significantly reduce the time complexity of a problem. However, dynamic programming can also be memory-intensive, as the lookup table used to store solutions to subproblems can require a large amount of memory. Additionally, dynamic programming may not be applicable to all types of problems and may require a significant amount of time and effort to implement.