The Browser Hacker’s Handbook (2014)
Chapter 11. Epilogue: Final Thoughts
Browser security challenges are not going to go away anytime soon. The arms race will go on. More browser features will be added and will be claimed to be better than the previous “best-ever” feature. New attack vectors will come and go. Stupid mistakes will be made by both sides because, don’t forget, we are all human.
It has been suggested that the number one problem within computer security is default permit1 — the tendency of any given request to be permitted unless explicitly disallowed. Historically, this has certainly been the case with the browser. Throughout this book we have discussed many security additions implemented subsequent to the initial release of the features they govern. This has resulted in browser security being applied post hoc.
The browser’s continued evolution is ultimately governed by a double arms race:
1. The arms race between browser variants competing for market share by being the most feature-packed, easy to use, efficacious, fast, and capable software in the market.
2. The arms race between the developers creating security defenses and the hackers trying to defeat them and discover new attack vectors in old or new functionality.
An implicit interconnection exists between these two arms races. The constant drive for new features and richer functionality adds to the browser’s complexity and expands the attack surface, creating new ground for the second arms race to expand into. This effect is compounded by the potentially inverse relationship between security and functionality created by the necessity to abolish default permit and replace it with default deny. If default permit is allowed to persist, it is virtually inevitable that new security holes will be introduced with any additional functionality. New vulnerabilities will require post-hoc remediation as exploits are discovered, perpetuating the cat-and-mouse game.
Even where the principle of default deny is applied, it may not always be possible to define whitelists for every eventuality. Wherever a degree of flexibility is required, the possible permutations of component interactions increase. This expands the trust that the browser must place on the server or other external sources.
As security is given an increased focus by developers, there may be a reduction in the creation of exploitable conditions. There may be a resultant depression in their rate of discovery as a function of effort. Regardless, the efficacy of any new security controls will always be challenged as a function of the complexity of any new features. Further, if the population of web browser installations continues to expand and diversify, it is likely that the efforts of hackers attempting to leverage control over the newly expanded browser landscape will multiply to keep pace.
There is no substitute for field testing, and as the use of the web browser continues to increase and new uses for it are developed and distributed, a hard fact remains: the number of core browser features, add-ons, or components that are not battle hardened through being the subject of targeted attacks will increase. Developers may take measures to counteract this by subjecting new components to simulated attacks (penetration testing) prior to release and by enhancing the secure development life cycle. Even this is unlikely to guarantee that every permutation and every eventuality, or every possibility of human ingenuity, has been explored.
One thing is certain: a renewed effort to apply security during the initial design phase must be maintained if the intensity of the cat-and-mouse game is to be reduced. New browser features must strive to be completely secure out of the box if they are to survive in the field.
For the foreseeable future, in any developed urban area there will likely be more web browsers surrounding you at any given point than there are people to use them. Life has a history of favoring only the winners—the battle for the browser is only beginning. We hope we’ve helped shape your next move and, in those revelations, promoted a more trustworthy and secure web.