Data Has to Go Somewhere - Introducing Python (2014)

Introducing Python (2014)

Chapter 8. Data Has to Go Somewhere

It is a capital mistake to theorize before one has data.

— Arthur Conan Doyle

An active program accesses data that is stored in Random Access Memory, or RAM. RAM is very fast, but it is expensive and requires a constant supply of power; if the power goes out, all the data in memory is lost. Disk drives are slower than RAM but have more capacity, cost less, and retain data even after someone trips over the power cord. Thus, a huge amount of effort in computer systems has been devoted to making the best tradeoffs between storing data on disk and RAM. As programmers, we need persistence: storing and retrieving data using nonvolatile media such as disks.

This chapter is all about the different flavors of data storage, each optimized for different purposes: flat files, structured files, and databases. File operations other than input and output are covered in Files.


This is also the first chapter to show examples of nonstandard Python modules; that is, Python code apart from the standard library. You’ll install them by using the pip command, which is painless. There are more details on its usage in Appendix D.

File Input/Output

The simplest kind of persistence is a plain old file, sometimes called a flat file. This is just a sequence of bytes stored under a filename. You read from a file into memory and write from memory to a file. Python makes these jobs easy. Its file operations were modeled on the familiar and popular Unix equivalents.

Before reading or writing a file, you need to open it:

fileobj = open( filename, mode )

Here’s a brief explanation of the pieces of this call:

§ fileobj is the file object returned by open()

§ filename is the string name of the file

§ mode is a string indicating the file’s type and what you want to do with it

The first letter of mode indicates the operation:

§ r means read.

§ w means write. If the file doesn’t exist, it’s created. If the file does exist, it’s overwritten.

§ x means write, but only if the file does not already exist.

§ a means append (write after the end) if the file exists.

The second letter of mode is the file’s type:

§ t (or nothing) means text.

§ b means binary.

After opening the file, you call functions to read or write data; these will be shown in the examples that follow.

Last, you need to close the file.

Let’s create a file from a Python string in one program and then read it back in the next.

Write a Text File with write()

For some reason, there aren’t many limericks about special relativity. This one will just have to do for our data source:

>>> poem = '''There was a young lady named Bright,

... Whose speed was far faster than light;

... She started one day

... In a relative way,

... And returned on the previous night.'''

>>> len(poem)


The following code writes the entire poem to the file 'relativity' in one call:

>>> fout = open('relativity', 'wt')

>>> fout.write(poem)


>>> fout.close()

The write() function returns the number of bytes written. It does not add any spaces or newlines, as print() does. You can also print() to a text file:

>>> fout = open('relativity', 'wt')

>>> print(poem, file=fout)

>>> fout.close()

This brings up the question: should I use write() or print()? By default, print() adds a space after each argument and a newline at the end. In the previous example, it appended a newline to the relativity file. To make print() work like write(), pass the following two arguments:

§ sep (separator, which defaults to a space, ' ')

§ end (end string, which defaults to a newline, '\n')

print() uses the defaults unless you pass something else. We’ll pass empty strings to suppress all of the fussiness normally added by print():

>>> fout = open('relativity', 'wt')

>>> print(poem, file=fout, sep='', end='')

>>> fout.close()

If you have a large source string, you can also write chunks until the source is done:

>>> fout = open('relativity', 'wt')

>>> size = len(poem)

>>> offset = 0

>>> chunk = 100

>>> while True:

... if offset > size:

... break

... fout.write(poem[offset:offset+chunk])

... offset += chunk




>>> fout.close()

This wrote 100 characters on the first try and the last 50 characters on the next.

If the relativity file is precious to us, let’s see if using mode x really protects us from overwriting it:

>>> fout = open('relativity', 'xt')

Traceback (most recent call last):

File "<stdin>", line 1, in<module>

FileExistsError: [Errno 17] File exists: 'relativity'

You can use this with an exception handler:

>>> try:

... fout = open('relativity', 'xt')]

... fout.write('stomp stomp stomp')

... except FileExistsError:

... print('relativity already exists!. That was a close one.')


relativity already exists!. That was a close one.

Read a Text File with read(), readline(), or readlines()

You can call read() with no arguments to slurp up the entire file at once, as shown in the example that follows. Be careful when doing this with large files; a gigabyte file will consume a gigabyte of memory.

>>> fin = open('relativity', 'rt' )

>>> poem =

>>> fin.close()

>>> len(poem)


You can provide a maximum character count to limit how much read() returns at one time. Let’s read 100 characters at a time and append each chunk to a poem string to rebuild the original:

>>> poem = ''

>>> fin = open('relativity', 'rt' )

>>> chunk = 100

>>> while True:

... fragment =

... if notfragment:

... break

... poem += fragment


>>> fin.close()

>>> len(poem)


After you’ve read all the way to the end, further calls to read() will return an empty string (''), which is treated as False in if not fragment. This breaks out of the while True loop.

You can also read the file a line at a time by using readline(). In this next example, we’ll append each line to the poem string to rebuild the original:

>>> poem = ''

>>> fin = open('relativity', 'rt' )

>>> while True:

... line = fin.readline()

... if notline:

... break

... poem += line


>>> fin.close()

>>> len(poem)


For a text file, even a blank line has a length of one (the newline character), and is evaluated as True. When the file has been read, readline() (like read()) also returns an empty string, which is also evaluated as False.

The easiest way to read a text file is by using an iterator. This returns one line at a time. It’s similar to the previous example, but with less code:

>>> poem = ''

>>> fin = open('relativity', 'rt' )

>>> for line infin:

... poem += line


>>> fin.close()

>>> len(poem)


All of the preceding examples eventually built the single string poem. The readlines() call reads a line at a time, and returns a list of one-line strings:

>>> fin = open('relativity', 'rt' )

>>> lines = fin.readlines()

>>> fin.close()

>>> print(len(lines), 'lines read')

5 lines read

>>> for line inlines:

... print(line, end='')


There was a young lady named Bright,

Whose speed was far faster than light;

She started one day

In a relative way,

And returned on the previous night.>>>

We told print() to suppress the automatic newlines because the first four lines already had them. The last line did not, causing the interactive prompt >>> to occur right after the last line.

Write a Binary File with write()

If you include a 'b' in the mode string, the file is opened in binary mode. In this case, you read and write bytes instead of a string.

We don’t have a binary poem lying around, so we’ll just generate the 256 byte values from 0 to 255:

>>> bdata = bytes(range(0, 256))

>>> len(bdata)


Open the file for writing in binary mode and write all the data at once:

>>> fout = open('bfile', 'wb')

>>> fout.write(bdata)


>>> fout.close()

Again, write() returns the number of bytes written.

As with text, you can write binary data in chunks:

>>> fout = open('bfile', 'wb')

>>> size = len(bdata)

>>> offset = 0

>>> chunk = 100

>>> while True:

... if offset > size:

... break

... fout.write(bdata[offset:offset+chunk])

... offset += chunk





>>> fout.close()

Read a Binary File with read()

This one is simple; all you need to do is just open with 'rb':

>>> fin = open('bfile', 'rb')

>>> bdata =

>>> len(bdata)


>>> fin.close()

Close Files Automatically by Using with

If you forget to close a file that you’ve opened, it will be closed by Python after it’s no longer referenced. This means that if you open a file within a function and don’t close it explicitly, it will be closed automatically when the function ends. But you might have opened the file in a long-running function or the main section of the program. The file should be closed to force any remaining writes to be completed.

Python has context managers to clean up things such as open files. You use the form with expression as variable:

>>> with open('relativity', 'wt') as fout:

... fout.write(poem)


That’s it. After the block of code under the context manager (in this case, one line) completes (normally or by a raised exception), the file is closed automatically.

Change Position with seek()

As you read and write, Python keeps track of where you are in the file. The tell() function returns your current offset from the beginning of the file, in bytes. The seek() function lets you jump to another byte offset in the file. This means that you don’t have to read every byte in a file to read the last one; you can seek() to the last one and just read one byte.

For this example, use the 256-byte binary file 'bfile' that you wrote earlier:

>>> fin = open('bfile', 'rb')

>>> fin.tell()


Use seek() to one byte before the end of the file:



Read until the end of the file:

>>> bdata =

>>> len(bdata)


>>> bdata[0]


seek() also returns the current offset.

You can call seek() with a second argument: seek( offset, origin ):

§ If origin is 0 (the default), go offset bytes from the start

§ If origin is 1, go offset bytes from the current position

§ If origin is 2, go offset bytes relative to the end

These values are also defined in the standard os module:

>>> import os

>>> os.SEEK_SET


>>> os.SEEK_CUR


>>> os.SEEK_END


So, we could have read the last byte in different ways:

>>> fin = open('bfile', 'rb')

One byte before the end of the file:

>>>, 2)


>>> fin.tell()


Read until the end of the file:

>>> bdata =

>>> len(bdata)


>>> bdata[0]



You don’t need to call tell() for seek() to work. I just wanted to show that they both report the same offset.

Here’s an example of seeking from the current position in the file:

>>> fin = open('bfile', 'rb')

This next example ends up two bytes before the end of the file:

>>>, 0)


>>> fin.tell()


Now, go forward one byte:

>>>, 1)


>>> fin.tell()


Finally, read until the end of the file:

>>> bdata =

>>> len(bdata)


>>> bdata[0]


These functions are most useful for binary files. You can use them with text files, but unless the file is ASCII (one byte per character), you would have a hard time calculating offsets. These would depend on the text encoding, and the most popular encoding (UTF-8) uses varying numbers of bytes per character.

Structured Text Files

With simple text files, the only level of organization is the line. Sometimes, you want more structure than that. You might want to save data for your program to use later, or send data to another program.

There are many formats, and here’s how you can distinguish them:

§ A separator, or delimiter, character like tab ('\t'), comma (','), or vertical bar ('|'). This is an example of the comma-separated values (CSV) format.

§ '<' and '>' around tags. Examples include XML and HTML.

§ Punctuation. An example is JavaScript Object Notation (JSON).

§ Indentation. An example is YAML (which depending on the source you use means “YAML Ain’t Markup Language;” you’ll need to research that one yourself).

§ Miscellaneous, such as configuration files for programs.

Each of these structured file formats can be read and written by at least one Python module.


Delimited files are often used as an exchange format for spreadsheets and databases. You could read CSV files manually, a line at a time, splitting each line into fields at comma separators, and adding the results to data structures such as lists and dictionaries. But it’s better to use the standardcsv module, because parsing these files can get more complicated than you think.

§ Some have alternate delimiters besides a comma: '|' and '\t' (tab) are common.

§ Some have escape sequences. If the delimiter character can occur within a field, the entire field might be surrounded by quote characters or preceded by some escape character.

§ Files have different line-ending characters. Unix uses '\n', Microsoft uses '\r\n', and Apple used to use '\r' but now uses '\n'.

§ There can be column names in the first line.

First, we’ll see how to read and write a list of rows, each containing a list of columns:

>>> import csv

>>> villains = [

... ['Doctor', 'No'],

... ['Rosa', 'Klebb'],

... ['Mister', 'Big'],

... ['Auric', 'Goldfinger'],

... ['Ernst', 'Blofeld'],

... ]

>>> with open('villains', 'wt') as fout: # a context manager

... csvout = csv.writer(fout)

... csvout.writerows(villains)

This creates the file villains with these lines:






Now, we’ll try to read it back in:

>>> import csv

>>> with open('villains', 'rt') as fin: # context manager

... cin = csv.reader(fin)

... villains = [row for row incin] # This uses a list comprehension


>>> print(villains)

[['Doctor', 'No'], ['Rosa', 'Klebb'], ['Mister', 'Big'],

['Auric', 'Goldfinger'], ['Ernst', 'Blofeld']]

Take a moment to think about list comprehensions (feel free to go to Comprehensions and brush up on that syntax). We took advantage of the structure created by the reader() function. It obligingly created rows in the cin object that we can extract in a for loop.

Using reader() and writer() with their default options, the columns are separated by commas and the rows by line feeds.

The data can be a list of dictionaries rather than a list of lists. Let’s read the villains file again, this time using the new DictReader() function and specifying the column names:

>>> import csv

>>> with open('villains', 'rt') as fin:

... cin = csv.DictReader(fin, fieldnames=['first', 'last'])

... villains = [row for row incin]


>>> print(villains)

[{'last': 'No', 'first': 'Doctor'},

{'last': 'Klebb', 'first': 'Rosa'},

{'last': 'Big', 'first': 'Mister'},

{'last': 'Goldfinger', 'first': 'Auric'},

{'last': 'Blofeld', 'first': 'Ernst'}]

Let’s rewrite the CSV file by using the new DictWriter() function. We’ll also call writeheader() to write an initial line of column names to the CSV file:

import csv

villains = [

{'first': 'Doctor', 'last': 'No'},

{'first': 'Rosa', 'last': 'Klebb'},

{'first': 'Mister', 'last': 'Big'},

{'first': 'Auric', 'last': 'Goldfinger'},

{'first': 'Ernst', 'last': 'Blofeld'},


with open('villains', 'wt') as fout:

cout = csv.DictWriter(fout, ['first', 'last'])



That creates a villains file with a header line:







Now we’ll read it back. By omitting the fieldnames argument in the DictReader() call, we instruct it to use the values in the first line of the file (first,last) as column labels and matching dictionary keys:

>>> import csv

>>> with open('villains', 'rt') as fin:

... cin = csv.DictReader(fin)

... villains = [row for row incin]


>>> print(villains)

[{'last': 'No', 'first': 'Doctor'},

{'last': 'Klebb', 'first': 'Rosa'},

{'last': 'Big', 'first': 'Mister'},

{'last': 'Goldfinger', 'first': 'Auric'},

{'last': 'Blofeld', 'first': 'Ernst'}]


Delimited files convey only two dimensions: rows (lines) and columns (fields within a line). If you want to exchange data structures among programs, you need a way to encode hierarchies, sequences, sets, and other structures as text.

XML is the most prominent markup format that suits the bill. It uses tags to delimit data, as in this sample menu.xml file:

<?xml version="1.0"?>


<breakfast hours="7-11">

<item price="$6.00">breakfast burritos</item>

<item price="$4.00">pancakes</item>


<lunch hours="11-3">

<item price="$5.00">hamburger</item>


<dinner hours="3-10">

<item price="8.00">spaghetti</item>



Following are a few important characteristics of XML:

§ Tags begin with a < character. The tags in this sample were menu, breakfast, lunch, dinner, and item.

§ Whitespace is ignored.

§ Usually a start tag such as <menu> is followed by other content and then a final matching end tag such as </menu>.

§ Tags can nest within other tags to any level. In this example, item tags are children of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner tags; they, in turn, are children of menu.

§ Optional attributes can occur within the start tag. In this example, price is an attribute of item.

§ Tags can contain values. In this example, each item has a value, such as pancakes for the second breakfast item.

§ If a tag named thing has no values or children, it can be expressed as the single tag by including a forward slash just before the closing angle bracket, such as <thing/>, rather than a start and end tag, like <thing></thing>.

§ The choice of where to put data—attributes, values, child tags—is somewhat arbitrary. For instance, we could have written the last item tag as <item price="$8.00" food="spaghetti"/>.

XML is often used for data feeds and messages, and has subformats like RSS and Atom. Some industries have many specialized XML formats, such as the finance field.

XML’s über-flexibility has inspired multiple Python libraries that differ in approach and capabilities.

The simplest way to parse XML in Python is by using ElementTree. Here’s a little program to parse the menu.xml file and print some tags and attributes:

>>> import xml.etree.ElementTree as et

>>> tree = et.ElementTree(file='menu.xml')

>>> root = tree.getroot()

>>> root.tag


>>> for child inroot:

... print('tag:', child.tag, 'attributes:', child.attrib)

... for grandchild inchild:

... print('\ttag:', grandchild.tag, 'attributes:', grandchild.attrib)


tag: breakfast attributes: {'hours': '7-11'}

tag: item attributes: {'price': '$6.00'}

tag: item attributes: {'price': '$4.00'}

tag: lunch attributes: {'hours': '11-3'}

tag: item attributes: {'price': '$5.00'}

tag: dinner attributes: {'hours': '3-10'}

tag: item attributes: {'price': '8.00'}

>>> len(root) # number of menu sections


>>> len(root[0]) # number of breakfast items


For each element in the nested lists, tag is the tag string and attrib is a dictionary of its attributes. ElementTree has many other ways of searching XML-derived data, modifying it, and even writing XML files. The ElementTree documentation has the details.

Other standard Python XML libraries include:


The Document Object Model (DOM), familiar to JavaScript developers, represents Web documents as hierarchical structures. This module loads the entire XML file into memory and lets you access all the pieces equally.


Simple API for XML, or SAX, parses XML on the fly, so it does not have to load everything into memory at once. Therefore, it can be a good choice if you need to process very large streams of XML.


Enormous amounts of data are saved as Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), the basic document format of the Web. The problem is so much of it doesn’t follow the HTML rules, which can make it difficult to parse. Also, much of HTML is intended more to format output than interchange data. Because this chapter is intended to describe fairly well-defined data formats, I have separated out the discussion about HTML to Chapter 9.


JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) has become a very popular data interchange format, beyond its JavaScript origins. The JSON format is a subset of JavaScript, and often legal Python syntax as well. Its close fit to Python makes it a good choice for data interchange among programs. You’ll see many examples of JSON for web development in Chapter 9.

Unlike the variety of XML modules, there’s one main JSON module, with the unforgettable name json. This program encodes (dumps) data to a JSON string and decodes (loads) a JSON string back to data. In this next example, let’s build a Python data structure containing the data from the earlier XML example:

>>> menu = \

... {

... "breakfast": {

... "hours": "7-11",

... "items": {

... "breakfast burritos": "$6.00",

... "pancakes": "$4.00"

... }

... },

... "lunch" : {

... "hours": "11-3",

... "items": {

... "hamburger": "$5.00"

... }

... },

... "dinner": {

... "hours": "3-10",

... "items": {

... "spaghetti": "$8.00"

... }

... }

... }


Next, encode the data structure (menu) to a JSON string (menu_json) by using dumps():

>>> import json

>>> menu_json = json.dumps(menu)

>>> menu_json

'{"dinner": {"items": {"spaghetti": "$8.00"}, "hours": "3-10"},

"lunch": {"items": {"hamburger": "$5.00"}, "hours": "11-3"},

"breakfast": {"items": {"breakfast burritos": "$6.00", "pancakes":

"$4.00"}, "hours": "7-11"}}'

And now, let’s turn the JSON string menu_json back into a Python data structure (menu2) by using loads():

>>> menu2 = json.loads(menu_json)

>>> menu2

{'breakfast': {'items': {'breakfast burritos': '$6.00', 'pancakes':

'$4.00'}, 'hours': '7-11'}, 'lunch': {'items': {'hamburger': '$5.00'},

'hours': '11-3'}, 'dinner': {'items': {'spaghetti': '$8.00'}, 'hours': '3-10'}}

menu and menu2 are both dictionaries with the same keys and values. As always with standard dictionaries, the order in which you get the keys varies.

You might get an exception while trying to encode or decode some objects, including objects such as datetime (covered in detail in Calendars and Clocks), as demonstrated here.

>>> import datetime

>>> now = datetime.datetime.utcnow()

>>> now

datetime.datetime(2013, 2, 22, 3, 49, 27, 483336)

>>> json.dumps(now)

Traceback (most recent call last):

# ... (deleted stack trace to save trees)

TypeError: datetime.datetime(2013, 2, 22, 3, 49, 27, 483336) is not JSON serializable


This can happen because the JSON standard does not define date or time types; it expects you to define how to handle them. You could convert the datetime to something JSON understands, such as a string or an epoch value (coming in Chapter 10):

>>> now_str = str(now)

>>> json.dumps(now_str)

'"2013-02-22 03:49:27.483336"'

>>> from time import mktime

>>> now_epoch = int(mktime(now.timetuple()))

>>> json.dumps(now_epoch)


If the datetime value could occur in the middle of normally converted data types, it might be annoying to make these special conversions. You can modify how JSON is encoded by using inheritance, which is described in Inheritance. Python’s JSON documentation gives an example of this for complex numbers, which also makes JSON play dead. Let’s modify it for datetime:

>>> class DTEncoder(json.JSONEncoder):

... def default(self, obj):

... # isinstance() checks the type of obj

... if isinstance(obj, datetime.datetime):

... return int(mktime(obj.timetuple()))

... # else it's something the normal decoder knows:

... return json.JSONEncoder.default(self, obj)


>>> json.dumps(now, cls=DTEncoder)


The new class DTEncoder is a subclass, or child class, of JSONEncoder. We only need to override its default() method to add datetime handling. Inheritance ensures that everything else will be handled by the parent class.

The isinstance() function checks whether the object obj is of the class datetime.datetime. Because everything in Python is an object, isinstance() works everywhere:

>>> type(now)

<class 'datetime.datetime'>

>>> isinstance(now, datetime.datetime)


>>> type(234)

<class 'int'>

>>> isinstance(234, int)


>>> type('hey')

<class 'str'>

>>> isinstance('hey', str)



For JSON and other structured text formats, you can load from a file into data structures without knowing anything about the structures ahead of time. Then, you can walk through the structures by using isinstance() and type-appropriate methods to examine their values. For example, if one of the items is a dictionary, you can extract contents through keys(), values(), and items().


Similar to JSON, YAML has keys and values, but handles more data types such as dates and times. The standard Python library does not yet include YAML handling, so you need to install a third-party library named yaml to manipulate it. load() converts a YAML string to Python data, whereas dump() does the opposite.

The following YAML file, mcintyre.yaml, contains information on the Canadian poet James McIntyre, including two of his poems:


first: James

last: McIntyre


birth: 1828-05-25

death: 1906-03-31


bearded: true

themes: [cheese, Canada]




- title: 'Motto'

text: |

Politeness, perseverance andpluck,

To their possessor will bring good luck.

- title: 'Canadian Charms'

text: |

Here industry is not invain,

For we have bounteous crops of grain,

And you behold on every field

Of grass androots abundant yield,

But after all the greatest charm

Is the snug home upon the farm,

And stone walls now keep cattle warm.

Values such as true, false, on, and off are converted to Python Booleans. Integers and strings are converted to their Python equivalents. Other syntax creates lists and dictionaries:

>>> import yaml

>>> with open('mcintyre.yaml', 'rt') as fin:

>>> text =

>>> data = yaml.load(text)

>>> data['details']

{'themes': ['cheese', 'Canada'], 'bearded': True}

>>> len(data['poems'])


The data structures that are created match those in the YAML file, which in this case are more than one level deep in places. You can get the title of the second poem with this dict/list/dict reference:

>>> data['poems'][1]['title']

'Canadian Charms'


PyYAML can load Python objects from strings, and this is dangerous. Use safe_load() instead of load() if you’re importing YAML that you don’t trust. Better yet, always use safe_load(). Read war is peace for a description of how unprotected YAML loading compromised the Ruby on Rails platform.

A Security Note

You can use all the formats described in this chapter to save objects to files and read them back again. It’s possible to exploit this process and cause security problems.

For example, the following XML snippet from the billion laughs Wikipedia page defines ten nested entities, each expanding the lower level ten times for a total expansion of one billion:

<?xml version="1.0"?>

<!DOCTYPE lolz [

<!ENTITY lol "lol">

<!ENTITY lol1 "&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;&lol;">

<!ENTITY lol2 "&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;&lol1;">

<!ENTITY lol3 "&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;&lol2;">

<!ENTITY lol4 "&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;&lol3;">

<!ENTITY lol5 "&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;&lol4;">

<!ENTITY lol6 "&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;&lol5;">

<!ENTITY lol7 "&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;&lol6;">

<!ENTITY lol8 "&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;&lol7;">

<!ENTITY lol9 "&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;&lol8;">



The bad news: billion laughs would blow up all of the XML libraries mentioned in the previous sections. Defused XML lists this attack and others, along with the vulnerability of Python libraries. The link shows how to change the settings for many of the libraries to avoid these problems. Also, you can use the defusedxml library as a security frontend for the other libraries:

>>> # insecure:

>>> from xml.etree.ElementTree import parse

>>> et = parse(xmlfile)

>>> # protected:

>>> from defusedxml.ElementTree import parse

>>> et = parse(xmlfile)

Configuration Files

Most programs offer various options or settings. Dynamic ones can be provided as program arguments, but long-lasting ones need to be kept somewhere. The temptation to define your own quick and dirty config file format is strong—but resist it. It often turns out to be dirty, but not so quick. You need to maintain both the writer program and the reader program (sometimes called a parser). There are good alternatives that you can just drop into your program, including those in the previous sections.

Here, we’ll use the standard configparser module, which handles Windows-style .ini files. Such files have sections of key = value definitions. Here’s a minimal settings.cfg file:


greeting = Hello


greeting = Bonjour


home = /usr/local

# simple interpolation:

bin = %(home)s/bin

Here’s the code to read it into Python data structures:

>>> import configparser

>>> cfg = configparser.ConfigParser()



>>> cfg

<configparser.ConfigParser object at 0x1006be4d0>

>>> cfg['french']

<Section: french>

>>> cfg['french']['greeting']


>>> cfg['files']['bin']


Other options are available, including fancier interpolation. See the configparser documentation. If you need deeper nesting than two levels, try YAML or JSON.

Other Interchange Formats

These binary data interchange formats are usually more compact and faster than XML or JSON:

§ MsgPack

§ Protocol Buffers

§ Avro

§ Thrift

Because they are binary, none can be easily edited by a human with a text editor.

Serialize by Using pickle

Saving data structures to a file is called serializing. Formats such as JSON might require some custom converters to serialize all the data types from a Python program. Python provides the pickle module to save and restore any object in a special binary format.

Remember how JSON lost its mind when encountering a datetime object? Not a problem for pickle:

>>> import pickle

>>> import datetime

>>> now1 = datetime.datetime.utcnow()

>>> pickled = pickle.dumps(now1)

>>> now2 = pickle.loads(pickled)

>>> now1

datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 22, 23, 24, 19, 195722)

>>> now2

datetime.datetime(2014, 6, 22, 23, 24, 19, 195722)

pickle works with your own classes and objects, too. We’ll define a little class called Tiny that returns the string 'tiny' when treated as a string:

>>> import pickle

>>> class Tiny():

... def __str__(self):

... return 'tiny'


>>> obj1 = Tiny()

>>> obj1

<__main__.Tiny object at 0x10076ed10>

>>> str(obj1)


>>> pickled = pickle.dumps(obj1)

>>> pickled


>>> obj2 = pickle.loads(pickled)

>>> obj2

<__main__.Tiny object at 0x10076e550>

>>> str(obj2)


pickled is the pickled binary string made from the object obj1. We converted that back to the object obj2 to make a copy of obj1. Use dump() to pickle to a file, and load() to unpickle from one.


Because pickle can create Python objects, the same security warnings that were discussed in earlier sections apply. Don’t unpickle something that you don’t trust.

Structured Binary Files

Some file formats were designed to store particular data structures but are neither relational nor NoSQL databases. The sections that follow present some of them.


Spreadsheets, notably Microsoft Excel, are widespread binary data formats. If you can save your spreadsheet to a CSV file, you can read it by using the standard csv module that was described earlier. If you have a binary xls file, xlrd is a third-party package for reading and writing.


HDF5 is a binary data format for multidimensional or hierarchical numeric data. It’s used mainly in science, where fast random access to large datasets (gigabytes to terabytes) is a common requirement. Even though HDF5 could be a good alternative to databases in some cases, for some reason HDF5 is almost unknown in the business world. It’s best suited to WORM (write once/read many) applications for which database protection against conflicting writes is not needed. Here are a couple of modules that you might find useful:

§ h5py is a full-featured low-level interface. Read the documentation and code.

§ PyTables is a bit higher-level, with database-like features. Read the documentation and code.

Both of these are discussed in terms of scientific applications of Python in Appendix C. I’m mentioning HDF5 here in case you have a need to store and retrieve large amounts of data and are willing to consider something outside the box, as well as the usual database solutions. A good example is the Million Song dataset, which has downloadable song data in HDF5 format.

Relational Databases

Relational databases are only about 40 years old but are ubiquitous in the computing world. You’ll almost certainly have to deal with them at one time or another. When you do, you’ll appreciate what they provide:

§ Access to data by multiple simultaneous users

§ Protection from corruption by those users

§ Efficient methods to store and retrieve the data

§ Data defined by schemas and limited by constraints

§ Joins to find relationships across diverse types of data

§ A declarative (rather than imperative) query language: SQL (Structured Query Language)

These are called relational because they show relationships among different kinds of data in the form of tables (as they are usually called nowadays). For instance, in our menu example earlier, there is a relationship between each item and its price.

A table is a grid of rows and columns, similar to a spreadsheet. To create a table, name it and specify the order, names, and types of its columns. Each row has the same columns, although a column may be defined to allow missing data (called nulls). In the menu example, you could create a table with one row for each item being sold. Each item has the same columns, including one for the price.

A column or group of columns is usually the table’s primary key; its values must be unique in the table. This prevents adding the same data to the table more than once. This key is indexed for fast lookups during queries. An index works a little like a book index, making it fast to find a particular row.

Each table lives within a parent database, like a file within a directory. Two levels of hierarchy help keep things organized a little better.


Yes, the word database is used in multiple ways: as the server, the table container, and the data stored therein. If you’ll be referring to all of them at the same time, it might help to call them database server, database, and data.

If you want to find rows by some non-key column value, define a secondary index on that column. Otherwise, the database server must perform a table scan—a brute-force search of every row for matching column values.

Tables can be related to each other with foreign keys, and column values can be constrained to these keys.


SQL is not an API or a protocol, but a declarative language: you say what you want rather than how to do it. It’s the universal language of relational databases. SQL queries are text strings, that a client sends to the database server, which figures out what to do with them.

There have been various SQL standard definitions, but all database vendors have added their own tweaks and extensions, resulting in many SQL dialects. If you store your data in a relational database, SQL gives you some portability. Still, dialect and operational differences can make it difficult to move your data to another type of database.

There are two main categories of SQL statements:

DDL (data definition language)

Handles creation, deletion, constraints, and permissions for tables, databases, and uses

DML (data manipulation language)

Handles data insertions, selects, updates, and deletions

Table 8-1 lists the basic SQL DDL commands.

Table 8-1. Basic SQL DDL commands


SQL pattern

SQL example

Create a database



Select current database

USE dbname


Delete a database and its tables



Create a table

CREATE TABLE tbname ( coldefs )

CREATE TABLE t (id INT, count INT)

Delete a table



Remove all rows from a table




Why all the CAPITAL LETTERS? SQL is case-insensitive, but it’s tradition (don’t ask me why) to SHOUT its keywords in code examples to distinguish them from column names.

The main DML operations of a relational database are often known by the acronym CRUD:

§ Create by using the SQL INSERT statement

§ Read by using SELECT

§ Update by using UPDATE

§ Delete by using DELETE

Table 8-2 looks at the commands available for SQL DML.

Table 8-2. Basic SQL DML commands


SQL pattern

SQL example

Add a row



Select all rows and columns

SELECT * FROM tbname


Select all rows, some columns

SELECT cols FROM tbname

SELECT id, count FROM t

Select some rows, some columns

SELECT cols FROM tbname WHERE condition

SELECT id, count from t WHERE count > 5 AND id = 9

Change some rows in a column

UPDATE tbname SET col = value WHERE condition

UPDATE t SET count=3 WHERE id=5

Delete some rows

DELETE FROM tbname WHERE condition

DELETE FROM t WHERE count <= 10 OR id = 16


An application programming interface (API) is a set of functions that you can call to get access to some service. DB-API is Python’s standard API for accessing relational databases. Using it, you can write a single program that works with multiple kinds of relational databases instead of writing a separate program for each one. It’s similar to Java’s JDBC or Perl’s dbi.

Its main functions are the following:


Make a connection to the database; this can include arguments such as username, password, server address, and others.


Create a cursor object to manage queries.

execute() and executemany()

Run one or more SQL commands against the database.

fetchone(), fetchmany(), and fetchall()

Get the results from execute.

The Python database modules in the coming sections conform to DB-API, often with extensions and some differences in details.


SQLite is a good, light, open source relational database. It’s implemented as a standard Python library, and stores databases in normal files. These files are portable across machines and operating systems, making SQLite a very portable solution for simple relational database applications. It isn’t as full-featured as MySQL or PostgreSQL, but it does support SQL, and it manages multiple simultaneous users. Web browsers, smart phones, and other applications use SQLite as an embedded database.

You begin with a connect() to the local SQLite database file that you want to use or create. This file is the equivalent of the directory-like database that parents tables in other servers. The special string ':memory:' creates the database in memory only; this is fast and useful for testing but will lose data when your program terminates or if your computer goes down.

For the next example, let’s make a database called enterprise.db and the table zoo to manage our thriving roadside petting zoo business. The table columns are as follows:


A variable length string, and our primary key


An integer count of our current inventory for this animal


The dollar amount of our current losses from animal-human interactions

>>> import sqlite3

>>> conn = sqlite3.connect('enterprise.db')

>>> curs = conn.cursor()

>>> curs.execute('''CREATE TABLE zoo


count INT,

damages FLOAT)''')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

Python’s triple quotes are handy when creating long strings such as SQL queries.

Now, add some animals to the zoo:

>>> curs.execute('INSERT INTO zoo VALUES("duck", 5, 0.0)')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

>>> curs.execute('INSERT INTO zoo VALUES("bear", 2, 1000.0)')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

There’s a safer way to insert data, using a placeholder:

>>> ins = 'INSERT INTO zoo (critter, count, damages) VALUES(?, ?, ?)'

>>> curs.execute(ins, ('weasel', 1, 2000.0))

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

This time, we used three question marks in the SQL to indicate that we plan to insert three values, and then pass those three values as a list to the execute() function. Placeholders handle tedious details such as quoting. They protect you against SQL injection—a kind of external attack that is common on the Web that inserts malicious SQL commands into the system.

Now, let’s see if we can get all our animals out again:

>>> curs.execute('SELECT * FROM zoo')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

>>> rows = curs.fetchall()

>>> print(rows)

[('duck', 5, 0.0), ('bear', 2, 1000.0), ('weasel', 1, 2000.0)]

Let’s get them again, but ordered by their counts:

>>> curs.execute('SELECT * from zoo ORDER BY count')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

>>> curs.fetchall()

[('weasel', 1, 2000.0), ('bear', 2, 1000.0), ('duck', 5, 0.0)]

Hey, we wanted them in descending order:

>>> curs.execute('SELECT * from zoo ORDER BY count DESC')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

>>> curs.fetchall()

[('duck', 5, 0.0), ('bear', 2, 1000.0), ('weasel', 1, 2000.0)]

Which type of animal is costing us the most?

>>> curs.execute('''SELECT * FROM zoo WHERE

... damages = (SELECT MAX(damages) FROM zoo)''')

<sqlite3.Cursor object at 0x1006a22d0>

>>> curs.fetchall()

[('weasel', 1, 2000.0)]

You would have thought it was the bears. It’s always best to check the actual data.

Before we leave SQLite, we need to clean up. If we opened a connection and a cursor, we need to close them when we’re done:

>>> curs.close()

>>> conn.close()


MySQL is a very popular open source relational database. Unlike SQLite, it’s an actual server, so clients can access it from different devices across the network.

MysqlDB has been the most popular MySQL driver, but it has not yet been ported to Python 3. Table 8-3 lists the drivers you can use to access MySQL from Python.

Table 8-3. MySQL drivers



Pypi package

Import as


MySQL Connector









Requires the MySQL C client libraries.


PostgreSQL is a full-featured open source relational database, in many ways more advanced than MySQL. Table 8-4 presents the Python drivers you can use to access it.

Table 8-4. PostgreSQL drivers



Pypi package

Import as





Needs pg_config from PostgreSQL client tools




The most popular driver is psycopg2, but its installation requires the PostgreSQL client libraries.


SQL is not quite the same for all relational databases, and DB-API takes you only so far. Each database implements a particular dialect reflecting its features and philosophy. Many libraries try to bridge these differences in one way or another. The most popular cross-database Python library is SQLAlchemy.

It isn’t in the standard library, but it’s well known and used by many people. You can install it on your system by using this command:

$ pip install sqlalchemy

You can use SQLAlchemy on several levels:

§ The lowest level handles database connection pools, executing SQL commands, and returning results. This is closest to the DB-API.

§ Next up is the SQL expression language, a Pythonic SQL builder.

§ Highest is the ORM (Object Relational Model) layer, which uses the SQL Expression Language and binds application code with relational data structures.

As we go along, you’ll understand what the terms mean in those levels. SQLAlchemy works with the database drivers documented in the previous sections. You don’t need to import the driver; the initial connection string you provide to SQLAlchemy will determine it. That string looks like this:

dialect + driver :// user : password @ host : port / dbname

The values you put in this string are as follows:


The database type


The particular driver you want to use for that database

user and password

Your database authentication strings

host and port

The database server’s location (: port is only needed if it’s not the standard one for this server)


The database to initially connect to on the server

Table 8-5 lists the dialects and drivers.

Table 8-5. SQLAlchemy connection




pysqlite (or omit)











The engine layer

First, we’ll try the lowest level of SQLAlchemy, which does little more than the base DB-API functions.

Let’s try it with SQLite, which is already built into Python. The connection string for SQLite skips the host, port, user, and password. The dbname informs SQLite as to what file to use to store your database. If you omit the dbname, SQLite builds a database in memory. If the dbnamestarts with a slash (/), it’s an absolute filename on your computer (as in Linux and OS X; for example, C:\\ on Windows). Otherwise, it’s relative to your current directory.

The following segments are all part of one program, separated here for explanation.

To begin, you need to import what we need. The following is an example of an import alias, which lets us use the string sa to refer to SQLAlchemy methods. I do this mainly because sa is a lot easier to type than sqlalchemy:

>>> import sqlalchemy as sa

Connect to the database and create the storage for it in memory (the argument string 'sqlite:///:memory:' also works):

>>> conn = sa.create_engine('sqlite://')

Create a database table called zoo that comprises three columns:

>>> conn.execute('''CREATE TABLE zoo

... (critter VARCHAR(20) PRIMARY KEY,

... count INT,

... damages FLOAT)''')

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017efb10>

Running conn.execute() returns a SQLAlchemy object called a ResultProxy. You’ll soon see what to do with it.

By the way, if you’ve never made a database table before, congratulations. Check that one off your bucket list.

Now, insert three sets of data into your new empty table:

>>> ins = 'INSERT INTO zoo (critter, count, damages) VALUES (?, ?, ?)'

>>> conn.execute(ins, 'duck', 10, 0.0)

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017efb50>

>>> conn.execute(ins, 'bear', 2, 1000.0)

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017ef090>

>>> conn.execute(ins, 'weasel', 1, 2000.0)

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017ef450>

Next, ask the database for everything that we just put in:

>>> rows = conn.execute('SELECT * FROM zoo')

In SQLAlchemy, rows is not a list; it’s that special ResultProxy thing that we can’t print directly:

>>> print(rows)

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017ef9d0>

However, you can iterate over it like a list, so we can get a row at a time:

>>> for row inrows:

... print(row)


('duck', 10, 0.0)

('bear', 2, 1000.0)

('weasel', 1, 2000.0)

That was almost the same as the SQLite DB-API example that you saw earlier. The one advantage is that we didn’t need to import the database driver at the top; SQLAlchemy figured that out from the connection string. Just changing the connection string would make this code portable to another type of database. Another plus is SQLAlchemy’s connection pooling, which you can read about at its documentation site.

The SQL Expression Language

The next level up is SQLAlchemy’s SQL Expression Language. It introduces functions to create the SQL for various operations. The Expression Language handles more of the SQL dialect differences than the lower-level engine layer does. It can be a handy middle-ground approach for relational database applications.

Here’s how to create and populate the zoo table. Again, these are successive fragments of a single program.

The import and connection are the same as before:

>>> import sqlalchemy as sa

>>> conn = sa.create_engine('sqlite://')

To define the zoo table, we’ll begin using some of the Expression Language instead of SQL:

>>> meta = sa.MetaData()

>>> zoo = sa.Table('zoo', meta,

... sa.Column('critter', sa.String, primary_key=True),

... sa.Column('count', sa.Integer),

... sa.Column('damages', sa.Float)

... )

>>> meta.create_all(conn)

Check out the parentheses in that multiline call in the preceding example. The structure of the Table() method matches the structure of the table. Just as our table contains three columns, there are three calls to Column() inside the parentheses of the Table() method call.

Meanwhile, zoo is some magic object that bridges the SQL database world and the Python data structure world.

Insert the data with more Expression Language functions:

... conn.execute(zoo.insert(('bear', 2, 1000.0)))

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017ea910>

>>> conn.execute(zoo.insert(('weasel', 1, 2000.0)))

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017eab10>

>>> conn.execute(zoo.insert(('duck', 10, 0)))

<sqlalchemy.engine.result.ResultProxy object at 0x1017eac50>

Next, create the SELECT statement ( selects everything from the table represented by the zoo object, such as SELECT * FROM zoo would do in plain SQL):

>>> result = conn.execute(

Finally, get the results:

>>> rows = result.fetchall()

>>> print(rows)

[('bear', 2, 1000.0), ('weasel', 1, 2000.0), ('duck', 10, 0.0)]

The Object-Relational Mapper

In the last section, the zoo object was a mid-level connection between SQL and Python. At the top layer of SQLAlchemy, the Object-Relational Mapper (ORM) uses the SQL Expression Language but tries to make the actual database mechanisms invisible. You define classes, and the ORM handles how to get their data in and out of the database. The basic idea behind that complicated phrase, “object-relational mapper,” is that you can refer to objects in your code, and thus stay close to the way Python likes to operate, while still using a relational database.

We’ll define a Zoo class and hook it into the ORM. This time, we’ll make SQLite use the file zoo.db so that we can confirm that the ORM worked.

As in the previous two sections, the snippets that follow are actually one program separated by explanations. Don’t worry if you don’t understand some if it. The SQLAlchemy documentation has all the details, and this stuff can get complex. I just want you to get an idea of how much work it is to do this, so that you can decide which of the approaches discussed in this chapter suits you.

The initial import is the same, but this time we need another something also:

>>> import sqlalchemy as sa

>>> from sqlalchemy.ext.declarative import declarative_base

Here, we make the connection:

>>> conn = sa.create_engine('sqlite:///zoo.db')

Now, we get into SQLAlchemy’s ORM. We define the Zoo class and associate its attributes with table columns:

>>> Base = declarative_base()

>>> class Zoo(Base):

... __tablename__ = 'zoo'

... critter = sa.Column('critter', sa.String, primary_key=True)

... count = sa.Column('count', sa.Integer)

... damages = sa.Column('damages', sa.Float)

... def __init__(self, critter, count, damages):

... self.critter = critter

... self.count = count

... self.damages = damages

... def __repr__(self):

... return "<Zoo({}, {}, {})>".format(self.critter, self.count, self.damages)

The following line magically creates the database and table:

>>> Base.metadata.create_all(conn)

You can then insert data by creating Python objects. The ORM manages these internally:

>>> first = Zoo('duck', 10, 0.0)

>>> second = Zoo('bear', 2, 1000.0)

>>> third = Zoo('weasel', 1, 2000.0)

>>> first

<Zoo(duck, 10, 0.0)>

Next, we get the ORM to take us to SQL land. We create a session to talk to the database:

>>> from sqlalchemy.orm import sessionmaker

>>> Session = sessionmaker(bind=conn)

>>> session = Session()

Within the session, we write the three objects that we created to the database. The add() function adds one object, and add_all() adds a list:

>>> session.add(first)

>>> session.add_all([second, third])

Finally, we need to force everything to complete:

>>> session.commit()

Did it work? Well, it created a zoo.db file in the current directory. You can use the command-line sqlite3 program to check it:

$ sqlite3 zoo.db

SQLite version 3.6.12

Enter ".help" for instructions

Enter SQL statements terminated with a ";"

sqlite> .tables


sqlite> select * from zoo;




The purpose of this section was to show what an ORM is and how it works at a high level. The author of SQLAlchemy has written a full tutorial. After reading this, decide which of the following levels would best fit your needs:

§ Plain DB-API, as in the earlier SQLite section

§ The SQLAlchemy engine room

§ The SQLAlchemy Expression Language

§ The SQLAlchemy ORM

It seems like a natural choice to use an ORM to avoid the complexities of SQL. Should you use one? Some people think ORMs should be avoided, but others think the criticism is overdone. Whoever’s right, an ORM is an abstraction, and all abstractions break down at some point; they’releaky. When your ORM doesn’t do what you want, you must figure out both how it works and how to fix it in SQL. To borrow an Internet meme: Some people, when confronted with a problem, think, “I know, I’ll use an ORM.” Now they have two problems. Use ORMs sparingly, and mostly for simple applications. If the application is that simple, maybe you can just use straight SQL (or the SQL Expression Language), anyhow.

Or, you can try something simpler such as dataset. It’s built on SQLAlchemy and provides a simple ORM for SQL, JSON, and CSV storage.

NoSQL Data Stores

Some databases are not relational and don’t support SQL. These were written to handle very large data sets, allow more flexible data definitions, or support custom data operations. They’ve been collectively labeled NoSQL (formerly meaning no SQL; now the less confrontational not only SQL).

The dbm Family

The dbm formats were around long before NoSQL was coined. They’re key-value stores, often embedded in applications such as web browsers to maintain various settings. A dbm database is like a Python dictionary in the following ways:

§ You can assign a value to a key, and it’s automatically saved to the database on disk.

§ You can get a value from a key.

The following is a quick example. The second argument to the following open() method is 'r' to read, 'w' to write, and 'c' for both, creating the file if it doesn’t exist:

>>> import dbm

>>> db ='definitions', 'c')

To create key-value pairs, just assign a value to a key just as you would a dictionary:

>>> db['mustard'] = 'yellow'

>>> db['ketchup'] = 'red'

>>> db['pesto'] = 'green'

Let’s pause and check what we have so far:

>>> len(db)


>>> db['pesto']


Now close, then reopen to see if it actually saved what we gave it:

>>> db.close()

>>> db ='definitions', 'r')

>>> db['mustard']


Keys and values are stored as bytes. You cannot iterate over the database object db, but you can get the number of keys by using len(). Note that get() and setdefault() work as they do for dictionaries.


memcached is a fast in-memory key-value cache server. It’s often put in front of a database, or used to store web server session data. You can download versions for Linux and OS X, and for Windows. If you want to try out this section, you’ll need a memcached server and Python driver.

There are many Python drivers; one that works with Python 3 is python3-memcached, which you can install by using this command:

$ pip install python-memcached

To use it, connect to a memcached server, after which you can do the following:

§ Set and get values for keys

§ Increment or decrement a value

§ Delete a key

Data is not persistent, and data that you wrote earlier might disappear. This is inherent in memcached, being that it’s a cache server. It avoids running out of memory by discarding old data.

You can connect to multiple memcached servers at the same time. In this next example, we’re just talking to one on the same computer:

>>> import memcache

>>> db = memcache.Client([''])

>>> db.set('marco', 'polo')


>>> db.get('marco')


>>> db.set('ducks', 0)


>>> db.get('ducks')


>>> db.incr('ducks', 2)


>>> db.get('ducks')



Redis is a data structure server. Like memcached, all of the data in a Redis server should fit in memory (although there is now an option to save the data to disk). Unlike memcached, Redis can do the following:

§ Save data to disk for reliability and restarts

§ Keep old data

§ Provide more data structures than simple strings

The Redis data types are a close match to Python’s, and a Redis server can be a useful intermediary for one or more Python applications to share data. I’ve found it so useful that it’s worth a little extra coverage here.

The Python driver redis-py has its source code and tests on GitHub, as well as online documentation. You can install it by using this command:

$ pip install redis

The Redis server itself has good documentation. If you install and start the Redis server on your local computer (with the network nickname localhost), you can try the programs in the following sections.


A key with a single value is a Redis string. Simple Python data types are automatically converted. Connect to a Redis server at some host (default is localhost) and port (default is 6379):

>>> import redis

>>> conn = redis.Redis()

redis.Redis('localhost') or redis.Redis('localhost', 6379) would have given the same result.

List all keys (none so far):

>>> conn.keys('*')


Set a simple string (key 'secret'), integer (key 'carats'), and float (key 'fever'):

>>> conn.set('secret', 'ni!')


>>> conn.set('carats', 24)


>>> conn.set('fever', '101.5')


Get the values back by key:

>>> conn.get('secret')


>>> conn.get('carats')


>>> conn.get('fever')


Here, the setnx() method sets a value only if the key does not exist:

>>> conn.setnx('secret', 'icky-icky-icky-ptang-zoop-boing!')


It failed because we had already defined 'secret':

>>> conn.get('secret')


The getset() method returns the old value and sets it to a new one at the same time:

>>> conn.getset('secret', 'icky-icky-icky-ptang-zoop-boing!')


Let’s not get too far ahead of ourselves. Did it work?

>>> conn.get('secret')


Now, get a substring by using getrange() (as in Python, offset 0=start, -1=end):

>>> conn.getrange('secret', -6, -1)


Replace a substring by using setrange() (using a zero-based offset):

>>> conn.setrange('secret', 0, 'ICKY')


>>> conn.get('secret')


Next, set multiple keys at once by using mset():

>>> conn.mset({'pie': 'cherry', 'cordial': 'sherry'})


Get more than one value at once by using mget():

>>> conn.mget(['fever', 'carats'])

[b'101.5', b'24']

Delete a key by using delete():

>>> conn.delete('fever')


Increment by using the incr() or incrbyfloat() commands, and decrement with decr():

>>> conn.incr('carats')


>>> conn.incr('carats', 10)


>>> conn.decr('carats')


>>> conn.decr('carats', 15)


>>> conn.set('fever', '101.5')


>>> conn.incrbyfloat('fever')


>>> conn.incrbyfloat('fever', 0.5)


There’s no decrbyfloat(). Use a negative increment to reduce the fever:

>>> conn.incrbyfloat('fever', -2.0)



Redis lists can contain only strings. The list is created when you do your first insertion. Insert at the beginning by using lpush():

>>> conn.lpush('zoo', 'bear')


Insert more than one item at the beginning:

>>> conn.lpush('zoo', 'alligator', 'duck')


Insert before or after a value by using linsert():

>>> conn.linsert('zoo', 'before', 'bear', 'beaver')


>>> conn.linsert('zoo', 'after', 'bear', 'cassowary')


Insert at an offset by using lset() (the list must exist already):

>>> conn.lset('zoo', 2, 'marmoset')


Insert at the end by using rpush():

>>> conn.rpush('zoo', 'yak')


Get the value at an offset by using lindex():

>>> conn.lindex('zoo', 3)


Get the values in an offset range by using lrange() (0 to -1 for all):

>>> conn.lrange('zoo', 0, 2)

[b'duck', b'alligator', b'marmoset']

Trim the list with ltrim(), keeping only those in a range of offsets:

>>> conn.ltrim('zoo', 1, 4)


Get a range of values (use 0 to -1 for all) by using lrange():

>>> conn.lrange('zoo', 0, -1)

[b'alligator', b'marmoset', b'bear', b'cassowary']

Chapter 10 shows you how you can use Redis lists and publish-subscribe to implement job queues.


Redis hashes are similar to Python dictionaries but can contain only strings. Thus, you can go only one level deep, not make deep-nested structures. Here are examples that create and play with a Redis hash called song:

Set the fields do and re in hash song at once by using hmset():

>>> conn.hmset('song', {'do': 'a deer', 're': 'about a deer'})


Set a single field value in a hash by using hset():

>>> conn.hset('song', 'mi', 'a note to follow re')


Get one field’s value by using hget():

>>> conn.hget('song', 'mi')

b'a note to follow re'

Get multiple field values by using hmget():

>>> conn.hmget('song', 're', 'do')

[b'about a deer', b'a deer']

Get all field keys for the hash by using hkeys():

>>> conn.hkeys('song')

[b'do', b're', b'mi']

Get all field values for the hash by using hvals():

>>> conn.hvals('song')

[b'a deer', b'about a deer', b'a note to follow re']

Get the number of fields in the hash by using hlen():

>>> conn.hlen('song')


Get all field keys and values in the hash by using hgetall():

>>> conn.hgetall('song')

{b'do': b'a deer', b're': b'about a deer', b'mi': b'a note to follow re'}

Set a field if its key doesn’t exist by using hsetnx():

>>> conn.hsetnx('song', 'fa', 'a note that rhymes with la')



Redis sets are similar to Python sets, as you can see in the series of examples that follow.

Add one or more values to a set:

>>> conn.sadd('zoo', 'duck', 'goat', 'turkey')


Get the number of values from the set:

>>> conn.scard('zoo')


Get all the set’s values:

>>> conn.smembers('zoo')

{b'duck', b'goat', b'turkey'}

Remove a value from the set:

>>> conn.srem('zoo', 'turkey')


Let’s make a second set to show some set operations:

>>> conn.sadd('better_zoo', 'tiger', 'wolf', 'duck')


Intersect (get the common members of) the zoo and better_zoo sets:

>>> conn.sinter('zoo', 'better_zoo')


Get the intersection of zoo and better_zoo, and store the result in the set fowl_zoo:

>>> conn.sinterstore('fowl_zoo', 'zoo', 'better_zoo')


Who’s in there?

>>> conn.smembers('fowl_zoo')


Get the union (all members) of zoo and better_zoo:

>>> conn.sunion('zoo', 'better_zoo')

{b'duck', b'goat', b'wolf', b'tiger'}

Store that union result in the set fabulous_zoo:

>>> conn.sunionstore('fabulous_zoo', 'zoo', 'better_zoo')


>>> conn.smembers('fabulous_zoo')

{b'duck', b'goat', b'wolf', b'tiger'}

What does zoo have that better_zoo doesn’t? Use sdiff() to get the set difference, and sdiffstore() to save it in the zoo_sale set:

>>> conn.sdiff('zoo', 'better_zoo')


>>> conn.sdiffstore('zoo_sale', 'zoo', 'better_zoo')


>>> conn.smembers('zoo_sale')


Sorted sets

One of the most versatile Redis data types is the sorted set, or zset. It’s a set of unique values, but each value has an associated floating point score. You can access each item by its value or score. Sorted sets have many uses:

§ Leader boards

§ Secondary indexes

§ Timeseries, using timestamps as scores

We’ll show the last use case, tracking user logins via timestamps. We’re using the Unix epoch value (more on this in Chapter 10) that’s returned by the Python time() function:

>>> import time

>>> now = time.time()

>>> now


Let’s add our first guest, looking nervous:

>>> conn.zadd('logins', 'smeagol', now)


Five minutes later, another guest:

>>> conn.zadd('logins', 'sauron', now+(5*60))


Two hours later:

>>> conn.zadd('logins', 'bilbo', now+(2*60*60))


One day later, not hasty:

>>> conn.zadd('logins', 'treebeard', now+(24*60*60))


In what order did bilbo arrive?

>>> conn.zrank('logins', 'bilbo')


When was that?

>>> conn.zscore('logins', 'bilbo')


Let’s see everyone in login order:

>>> conn.zrange('logins', 0, -1)

[b'smeagol', b'sauron', b'bilbo', b'treebeard']

With their times, please:

>>> conn.zrange('logins', 0, -1, withscores=True)

[(b'smeagol', 1361857057.576483), (b'sauron', 1361857357.576483),

(b'bilbo', 1361864257.576483), (b'treebeard', 1361943457.576483)]


This is a very space-efficient and fast way to deal with large sets of numbers. Suppose that you have a website with registered users. You’d like to track how often people log in, how many users visit on a particular day, how often the same user visits on following days, and so on. You could use Redis sets, but if you’ve assigned increasing numeric user IDs, bits are more compact and faster.

Let’s begin by creating a bitset for each day. For this test, we’ll just use three days and a few user IDs:

>>> days = ['2013-02-25', '2013-02-26', '2013-02-27']

>>> big_spender = 1089

>>> tire_kicker = 40459

>>> late_joiner = 550212

Each date is a separate key. Set the bit for a particular user ID for that date. For example, on the first date (2013-02-25), we had visits from big_spender (ID 1089) and tire_kicker (ID 40459):

>>> conn.setbit(days[0], big_spender, 1)


>>> conn.setbit(days[0], tire_kicker, 1)


The next day, big_spender came back:

>>> conn.setbit(days[1], big_spender, 1)


The next day had yet another visit from our friend, big_spender, and a new person whom we’re calling late_joiner:

>>> conn.setbit(days[2], big_spender, 1)


>>> conn.setbit(days[2], late_joiner, 1)


Let’s get the daily visitor count for these three days:

>>> for day indays:

... conn.bitcount(day)





Did a particular user visit on a particular day?

>>> conn.getbit(days[1], tire_kicker)


So, tire_kicker did not visit on the second day.

How many users visited every day?

>>> conn.bitop('and', 'everyday', *days)


>>> conn.bitcount('everyday')


I’ll give you three guesses who it was:

>>> conn.getbit('everyday', big_spender)


Finally, what was the number of total unique users in these three days?

>>> conn.bitop('or', 'alldays', *days)


>>> conn.bitcount('alldays')


Caches and expiration

All Redis keys have a time-to-live, or expiration date. By default, this is forever. We can use the expire() function to instruct Redis how long to keep the key. As is demonstrated here, the value is a number of seconds:

>>> import time

>>> key = 'now you see it'

>>> conn.set(key, 'but not for long')


>>> conn.expire(key, 5)


>>> conn.ttl(key)


>>> conn.get(key)

b'but not for long'

>>> time.sleep(6)

>>> conn.get(key)


The expireat() command expires a key at a given epoch time. Key expiration is useful to keep caches fresh and to limit login sessions.

Other NoSQL

The NoSQL servers listed here handle data larger than memory, and many of them use multiple computers. Table 8-6 presents notable servers and their Python libraries.

Table 8-6. NoSQL databases


Python API







Kyoto Cabinet






Full-Text Databases

Finally, there’s a special category of databases for full-text search. They index everything, so you can find that poem that talks about windmills and giant wheels of cheese. You can see some popular open source examples, and their Python APIs, in Table 8-7.

Table 8-7. Full-text databases


Python API












(written in Python, includes an API)

Things to Do

8.1. Assign the string 'This is a test of the emergency text system' to the variable test1, and write test1 to a file called test.txt.

8.2. Open the file test.txt and read its contents into the string test2. Are test1 and test2 the same?

8.3. Save these text lines to a file called books.csv. Notice that if the fields are separated by commas, you need to surround a field with quotes if it contains a comma.


J R R Tolkien,The Hobbit

Lynne Truss,"Eats, Shoots & Leaves"

8.4. Use the csv module and its DictReader method to read books.csv to the variable books. Print the values in books. Did DictReader handle the quotes and commas in the second book’s title?

8.5. Create a CSV file called books.csv by using these lines:


The Weirdstone of Brisingamen,Alan Garner,1960

Perdido Street Station,China Miéville,2000

Thud!,Terry Pratchett,2005

The Spellman Files,Lisa Lutz,2007

Small Gods,Terry Pratchett,1992

8.6. Use the sqlite3 module to create a SQLite database called books.db, and a table called books with these fields: title (text), author (text), and year (integer).

8.7. Read books.csv and insert its data into the book table.

8.8. Select and print the title column from the book table in alphabetical order.

8.9. Select and print all columns from the book table in order of publication.

8.10. Use the sqlalchemy module to connect to the sqlite3 database books.db that you just made in exercise 8.6. As in 8.8, select and print the title column from the book table in alphabetical order.

8.11. Install the Redis server and the Python redis library (pip install redis) on your computer. Create a Redis hash called test with the fields count (1) and name ('Fester Bestertester'). Print all the fields for test.

8.12. Increment the count field of test and print it.