Hacking For Dummies (2015)
Chapter 2- What Do Hackers do!!
The domain of hacking is not a matter of few steps to be followed. It pertains to a whole set of knowledge and expertise to be applied at different levels of hacking. When pertaining to the knowledge of hacking, it is not always necessary to know about hacking, to hack. But this knowledge can help you to get away and protected from the activities of these hackers. Sometimes you may need to apply this knowledge to find out the weaknesses and loopholes in the computer system, whether in personal or corporate use.
Hacking is not cracking!
There is a very fine line of difference between hacking and cracking. There has been a lot of date available in the literature of information technology which guides to know the difference about the two. Whenever there is a news about the stealing of data or loss of data in some computer system, people label it to the activity of hacking but the experts believe that unless the difference is very clear so that the knowledge can be enhanced and improved for taking necessary steps.
A Hacker is a person who is fond of exploring the operating systems and computer gadgets. One of the most basic knowledge implied by the hackers is that of programming, so you may expect a hacker to have an in-depth knowledge of program codes and languages.
They also know about the security loop holes within computer systems and the ways to address these deficient. The most professional Hackers can applying the knowledge to a number of various situations so their knowledge will help them you deal with various situations. They are not just code readers.
The crackers are usually a person whose knowledge is lined to the field of entering the database and telling the data. The cracking is mostly done with malicious purposes. So you can consider cracking as a sub domain of hacking pr part of hacking where a hacker may first need to apply the cracking knowledge for the entry into the system of computers and data. Crackers are usually considered to be lower in knowledge as compared to the hackers, because they have mastery in only one domain of data retrieval and access.
So when an incident is pirating data stealing you need to get in-depth analysis that is it hacking or craving.
The starting point of Hacking
Learning the hacking knowledge and exercise may come along your way, when you have become a victim of it or when your organization demands you to learn about it. So many of us may get confused that what is the starting point.
The basic knowledge of hacking starts with the proficiency in programming. So the initiation point is the knowledge of Hypertext Markup Language (HTML).
HTML is the basic building block of all the website pages and other type of web content. It is governed through the basic knowledge of source code and programming techniques.
The steps performed in Hacking
Ø Performing of Reconnaissance
Reconnaissance is considered to be the pre-attack stage. It is the stage which emails to all the preparation needed to attack the target. It is an organized way to situate, collect, recognize and trace the information regarding the computer system of the target. The information gathered in this phase will set out the intensity of attacked which can be triggered towards the victim. So the better is the information gathered the stringer will be the attack on the target.
Ø Enumeration and Scanning
It can be regarded as the next step to the pre attack phase. This phase makes use of the information which has been collected in the first step. This information will in used to read and analyze the typical characteristics of the network systems. Scanning is also performed in this phase. In these procedures all the vulnerable and open ports of entry are located within an operating system. The system vulnerabilities are scanned using different tools and sophisticated programming language.
Ø Gaining Access
This is the stage of real activity of hacking, which pertains to the first practical step of hacking. It is the phase of exploitation of the vulnerabilities, which have been detected in the first two phases; the mode of connection to the target system is developed in this phase. The choice may involve a local access to the operating system, local area network, local access the Internet, or offline modes. When the hacker gains access to the target system it is referred as the owning of the system.
Once the access is achieved, the target system is vulnerable to a number of possible reparations and damages.
Ø Maintaining Access
One time access to the operating system of computers may not be useful for the complete hacking activity, so it is necessary to maintain this access. It will not only ensure the complete hacking activity but provide the route for even greater control. So the ground and foundation for marinating the access is strengthened during the access gain phase, where the hacker while roaming about in the system, fixes some points for re entry and maintenance of access. In this phase the hacker usually makes the entry exclusive for his own access by using sophisticated tools like Root kits, backdoors and Trojans. This phase mainly involves the use of automated tools and scripts to wash away any signs if hacking. The backdoors are also created using these tools.
Ø Clearing Tracks
It is more like a scrutiny for the hacking phase. Just like a robber clears away all the evidence before leaving the robbing site, a hacker also clears away all the evidences. All the tracks and paths are covered in this phase. The purpose is to get away from the site of the security. In this phase the major security tools used involve the log checking’s and firewalls. Once this phase is clearly accomplished, there are many chances that the hacking activity and access will be continued for the same system in the future. It is because if access is detected in the early phase the system experts can make even greater controls for hindering the future access.