What exactly is the Internet of Things (IoT) and what does it mean to you? Well, the big picture is pretty straightforward. As described throughout the book, IoT will bring about smartness that will lead to smart living, better quality of life, and higher process efficiency.

Everything will be smart, networked, and automated: Not just devices such as phones and watches, but home and industrial machines and everyday objects such as doors and clothing. They will all have embedded sensors that communicate information to other smart “things” over wireless and wired networks.

And the best part: everything will happen without human intervention. For example, plants and agricultural crops will water themselves when they need it … not when they do not.

7.1 Simple C-IoT Domains and Model

The book has taken a simplified visionary approach for the future of IoT and presented a new model for C-IoT (Collaborative Internet of Things) with focus on collaborative intelligence that will impact our connected life and businesses.

The simplified C-IoT model, in its simplest form, consists of sensing, gateway, and services. Sensing will tap into what matters, and gateway will add intelligence and connectivity for action to be taken at the local level and/or communicate information to a higher level. The services will capture information, digest, analyze, and develop insights of ways that help improve quality of lives or business operation.

Also, the book introduces simplified C-IoT domains consisting of 3Is: Individual, Industry, and Infrastructure where key target business applications can span any or all of these domains. Individual for smart living covers consumer electronics and wearable devices, smart homes, and smart connected cars. Industry for business efficiency covers several markets associated with industry such as factory automation, smart buildings, and smart retails. Infrastructure for smart communities and cities for sustainable environment and living includes public transportation and highways, public safety, disaster management, smart education, and smart health care.

7.2 Disruptive Business Applications of C-IoT

Gaining insights in these domains and business applications will result in driving better results. With a C-IoT, smart homes and businesses will make themselves energy efficient and safe.

Examples for some of the domains are discussed in the following sections.

7.2.1 Individual

· Smart kitchens will keep a database of supply levels and let you know when you are low on milk and bread or order your groceries automatically. You will even be able to preheat your oven on your way home or have it message you and the kids when dinner is ready. If that sounds too futuristic, I assure you that it is not.

· Smart cars and highways will not only find the fastest way for you to get to where you are going, but also help you get there safely by sensing potential accidents, break failure, and even tire blowouts before they happen.

7.2.2 Industry

· Improving energy efficiency with intelligent power grids, self-managed office buildings and industrial plants, and smart meters.

· Using Big Data and software analytics can help predict industrial equipment failure before it happens and reduce downtime.

· Networked smart meters will guide you to free parking spaces as you approach, and your favorite Italian restaurant will tell your car or phone how long you will have to wait for an open table.

· Hospital operating rooms will sense unacceptable levels of bacteria on a surgeon and emergency rooms will be able to locate and route physicians and equipment in real time.

· Smart buildings are leveraging emerging IoT technologies to become even smarter. According to the latest Global Sustainability Perspective from Jones Lang LaSalle (JLL), six advances in smart building technology are enabling a new era in building energy efficiency and carbon footprint reduction, yielding a return on investment for building owners within 1–2 years [1].

The future of C-IoT will manifest itself from two areas: having better product and services and managing our lives more efficiently. These in turn put demands on every aspect of the supply chain for product and services.

If at every stage in the supply chain, the stage suppliers strive to deliver their best, then the sum total of efforts manifested at each stage will have much more positive impact on everyone.

C-IoT helps to tap into resources that have been passive and bring about stream of data that can be collected and analyzed empowering us as to what makes sense out of everything.

Companies need to innovate more and collaborate with other, third parties to deliver a total solution. This will require more innovative approach across the supply chain from SoC, to chip, to module, to board, to equipment, to software, and to applications.

Our lives will transform into a digital lifestyle of better quality, better health, improved fitness all due to the emerging tools and gadgets that bring a new dimension of information at our fingertips, which helps us to make real-time quality choices.

Device lifecycle management will be more important than ever as humans will be truly interacting and subscribing to information from sources that we do not control.

7.3 A New Digital Lifestyle

By the year 2020, connected devices will become the reality we have been waiting for. Our cars will report how much fuel we used; meters will control our thermostats; and pedometers will unlock our refrigerators only when we have walked the required amount of daily steps. Physicians and caretakers will know that something is wrong with our organs before we do. We will be inundated by more ISM (Industrial Scientific and Medical) short-range protocols than we can imagine embedded in our shoes, pacemakers, medicine bottles, wallets, eyeglasses, watches, dog collars, trash bins, and more. Sensors will be embedded in bridges, ceilings, and roads. Bluetooth Low Energy, ANT and mesh networks, ultra-low-power, and short-range wireless technology designed for sensor networks will provide connected “dust” that reports petabytes of information back through gateways requiring petaflops of computing power.

7.4 Development Platform

According to a new survey by market research firm Evans Data, 17% of the world’s software developers are already working on IoT projects. Another 23% are planning to start an IoT project within the next 6 months. The most popular devices are Security and surveillance products, connected cars, environmental sensors and smart lights, and other office automation tools [2].

Both Apple and Google have made moves toward building out successful mobile ecosystems – iOS for Apple and Android for Google – into hubs for innovation for IoT fixtures, particularly smart homes. Google acquired Nest Labs, which then opened its Nest Developer Program to make its smart home platform an open-source hub through which third-party manufacturers’ devices and outside developers’ apps can communicate. Apple’s HomeKit, similarly, is being developed as a framework for the communication and control of smart home devices [3].

7.4.1 Influencers for Smart Connected Homes

A recent study report “Internet of Things Influence Study” published by Appinions in July 2014 [4] reveals that the top three influencers were all involved in connected home:

· Apple took the #1 spot by announcing HomeKit, a development platform to integrate existing and future smart home technology into the Apple iOS so that end users can use a single app for all home controls.

· Google’s recent acquisition of smart thermostat maker Nest Labs and Nest’s subsequent acquisition of security cam firm Dropcam pushed Nest and Google to second and third.

7.4.2 Influencers for Industrial Internet

· GE has coined the term “industrial internet” to unite the fields of Machine-to-Machine (M2M) communication, manufacture, big data, and the IoT and led the way in establishing the Industrial Internet Consortium to bring together firms interested in developing this type of technology.

· AT&T and IBM partner on IoT for smart cities and utilities. The companies will combine their analytic platforms, cloud, and security technologies with a focus on privacy. AT&T will manage sensors’ communications and tracking happening over the cellular network, and IBM will use its analytics platforms. They are targeting customers and using cases that produce vast troves of data from devices as diverse as mass transit vehicles, utility meters, and video cameras. The goal is to use their resources to identify patterns and trends to improve urban planning and let utilities better manage their equipment to reduce costs [5].

7.5 C-IoT Emerging Standards, Consortiums, and Other Initiatives

Over the past several years, there were many books, articles, seminars, and events held on IoT. Today, IoT is an integral part of many of the conferences. Many companies have allocated a business unit to address IoT markets, common platform, interoperability and testing, and other areas of concerns. As a result, many events such as seminars/webinars and workshops were conducted in different regions of the world to raise awareness and provide input to other forums. Consortiums were created in 2014 and several international standard organizations have started to work on developing standards for IoT.

The following section provides some of these initiatives with the hope of encouraging the reader to get engaged and help advance the progress of IoT standards that will help in rapid prototyping, and development and deployment of innovative applications and solutions.

7.5.1 C-IoT Emerging Standards

Most of the following list of standards activities was created in 2013/2014. IEEE – Standard for an Architectural Framework for the Internet of Things (IoT)

IEEE Standards Association on Innovation and IoT is currently working with over 20 companies in developing architectural standards for IoT under Project P2413. The IEEE-SA Board of Governors/Corporate Advisory Group sponsors the Project.

This standard defines an architectural framework for the IoT, including descriptions of various IoT domains, definitions of IoT domain abstractions, and identification of commonalities between different IoT domains.

The architectural framework for IoT provides a reference model that defines relationships among various IoT verticals (e.g., transportation and healthcare) and common architecture elements. It also provides a blueprint for data abstraction and the quality “quadruple” trust that includes protection, security, privacy, and safety. Furthermore, this standard provides a reference architecture that builds upon the reference model. The reference architecture covers the definition of basic architectural building blocks (Sensing, Gateway, and Services in this book) and their ability to be integrated into multi-tiered systems solution [6]. IEC– Smart Grid

The IEC is a not-for-profit organization that brings together 165 countries and offers a global platform to over 13 000 experts from industry, governments, and user groups. These experts define specifications, measurement methodologies, and testing requirements that are needed to do business in the global market. They develop International Standards that cover all aspects of safety, interoperability, efficiency, electromagnetic compatibility, and environmental impact. One of the target businesses is Smart Grid, which includes Smart Grid Standards Map, IEC standards, strategy, interoperability, regulations, and others.

Electric energy is the ultimate just-in-time product. It needs to be used the moment it is generated and must be supplied continuously. Today’s Grids are deeply rooted in technology that was modern more than 100 years ago, long before the first microchip. Most Smart Grid Project managers are now charged with updating those legacy systems. And the big question is how [7]. ITU and IoT

International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has established several groups 2, 3, 9, 11, 13, 16, and 17 as well as Joint Coordination Activity on IoT and focused group on M2M service layer in advancing the work on IoT [8]:

· JCA-IoT: Joint Coordination Activity on Internet of Things

· FG M2M: Focus Group on Machine-to-Machine Service layer

· Study Group 2: Operational aspects of service provision and telecommunications management

· Study Group 3: Economic and policy issues

· Study Group 9: Broadband cable and TV

· Study Group 11: Signaling requirements, protocols, and test specifications

· Study Group 13: Future networks including mobile and NGN (next-generation network)

· Study Group 16: Multimedia coding, systems, and applications

· Study Group 17: Security ITU and Intelligent Transport Systems

There are ITU efforts focusing in development standards for Intelligent Transport Systems (ITS). Focus is to improve traffic flow, to increase the efficiency of freight and public transportation, and to reduce fuel consumption. They also have been identified as a tool to improve road safety. This report analyzes the functionalities of ITS and describes the set of technologies used in ITS. It reviews current ITS standardization activities and identifies possible areas for future ITU-T work [9]. ISO– Intelligent Transportation Systems, e-Health on IoT Matters

To prepare the future of road vehicles, ISO works closely with its partners of the World Standards Cooperation (WSC) – the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the ITU [10]. LTE for Cellular IoT

A group of industry players, including network and device suppliers, operators, and academics, brought together by Vodafone, has been looking at the problem of supporting the “IoT” for the past year and has recently published a White Paper outlining the options. These include further new features in LTE (Long-Term Evolution) that would be defined through 3GPP; or an alternative “clean slate” cellular standard defined specifically to meet the needs of the IoT. Any future system will need to connect “things” that do not have large amounts of data to communicate; can be in hard-to-reach locations such as manholes, meter closets, and in very isolated locations; and need to operate for years on small batteries [11].

7.5.2 C-IoT Emerging Consortiums Internet of Things Consortium

It was formed to drive adoption of IoT products and services through curated networking, consumer research, and Industry Education. The value proposition is to make consumers’ lives more efficient, safer, and seamless. Member companies include SmartThings, Konrol TV, OUYA, Logitech, Plum, LUMBO, Planet Labs, Mojio, Flatout, Koubachi, iotlist, techstars, O’reilly, and Solid [12]. Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC)

It is an IoT consortium that is aimed to set standards for connecting billions of household gadgets and appliances. The Open Interconnect Consortium (OIC) is focused on delivering a specification, an open source implementation, and a certification program for wirelessly connecting devices. Member companies include Atmel, Broadcom, Dell, Intel, Samsung, and Wind River [13]. AllSeen Alliance

The organizations involved in AllSeen work off of Qualcomm’s AllJoyn open source project as the initial framework. Members include Qualcomm, LG, Electronics, Sharp, Panasonic, Haier, Technicolor, Silicon Image, TP-LINK, and others. Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC)

The Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) is an open membership organization formed to accelerate the development, adoption, and widespread use of interconnected machines and devices, intelligent analytics, and people at work. IIC has over 50 members. Its Founding members include AT&T, Cisco, GE, Intel, and IBM [14]. Thread

Thread was designed with one goal in mind: to create the very best way to connect and control products in the home. Founding members include ARM, BIGASS, Freescale, Nest, Samsung, Silicon Labs, and Yale [15].

7.5.3 Forums, Workshops, and Other Initiatives Worldwide IoT Standards Workshops

· 2012: Beijing, China and Milan, Italy

· 2013: Shenzhen, China and Mountain View, CA

· 2014: IEEE IoT World Forum, Seoul, Korea (March 6–8)

· 2014: IoT Developers Conference, Santa Clara, CA (May 8)

· 2014: IoT Week, London, UK (June 16–20)

· 2014: IoT World, Palo Alto, CA (June 18)

· 2014: Workshop, Mountain View, CA (September 18–19)

· 2014: The IoT World Forum, Chicago, IL (October 14–16)

· 2014: Healthcare 2014 Workshop – E-health, IoT, and Cloud: standards, challenges, and opportunities, Natal, RN Brazil (October 15–18)

· 2014: IoT Applications USA, Santa Clara, CA (November 19–20)

· 2014: IoT World Forum, London, UK (November 25–26)

· 2015: Third International Workshop on Pervasive IoT and Smart Cities, Gwangju, South Korea (March 24–27)

· 2015: International Conference on Recent Advances in IoT, Singapore (April 7–9)

· 2015: IoT North America, Chicago, IL (April 15–16)

· 2015: IoT Applications Europe, Berlin, Germany (April 28–29)

· 2015: IoT Developers Conference, Santa Clara, CA (May 6–7)

· 2015: Second Annual IoT World, San Francisco, CA (May 12–13)

· 2015: Internet of Things Expo, New York, NY (June 9–11)

· 2015: Internet of Things Expo, Santa Clara, CA (November 3–5) IoT Industry Roundtables and Webinars

· 2012: Milan

· 2013: Korea and the United States

· 2014: Four Industry Roundtables in the United States, Europe, and Asia

· 2014: IoT Day, Global via Meetup (April 9)

· 2014: IoT How Are European and US Regulators Responding? (March 24)

7.5.4 C-IoT and Radio Communications

The integration of short-range ISM radios such as Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, ZigBee, and Z-wave on modules will proliferate. Radios will become more application specific with software embedded for wireless and wired protocols such as Modbus over Ethernet and ZigBee over 802.15.4. I also believe that Java will abandon Linux and will go bare metal in order to improve on resources, energy, and startup time.

7.5.5 C-IoT and Nanotechnology

Nanotechnology will play important part in the future C-IoT. Some examples were presented in the future section at the beginning of the book. Fundamentally, nanotechnology will converge with Semiconductor and is expected to revolutionize every industry. One of the impacts is on the life and size of batteries. Nanotechnology and Semiconductor

According to Dr. Eric Drexter, University of Oxford, a pioneering nanotechnology researcher and author, we are likely to see transition to a new industrial revolution and a large change in manufacturing. Convergence between nanotechnology and semiconductor technology can take digital information systems beyond the limits of Moore’s law. Semiconductor industry is well positioned to benefit from advances in nanotechnology. Nanotechnology and Batteries

Nanobatteries have increased surface areas because the electrodes are coated with nanoparticles.

Batteries using nanomaterial can increase the life of batteries, reduce the size, and release no current when it is not in use.

Current silicon when switched off, it still consumes current. But with nanotechnology new material and transistor, there will not be any leakage. Semiconductor (with 15 nm and beyond) will capitalize on nanotechnology to reach 1 TB speed. As you reduce the size of the silicon (2000 times smaller than that of the diameter of your hair), you can pack more processing power and other components.

Innovation will take place by using nanotechnology with Nanophotonics (light – current global market size is $1.8B – Transparency Market Research) to be used to transmit the data directly on the chip, which has higher speed and uses less power in transmitting data.

7.5.6 C-IoT and Security

The transient effects of large numbers of connected devices and the coordination of those devices in situations of anomaly will become more important as the number of devices will outnumber handsets 10-fold. Some of these devices (e.g., person– company–company, person–vehicle–vehicle, person–government, and Robot–Robot) will have both publishing and subscription capabilities, communicating on a peer-to-peer basis. As these devices are deployed, the complex interaction between them and the network will cause perturbations that could have a detrimental effect on the network, much like “packet storms” in IP networks.

This pending social network of machines has implications for security, too. If we subscribe to other companies, the government, or even a sensor crowd source of information, how do we know that it is secure and accurate? Security will be the next important leap forward in IoT.

Apple and Google are two of the biggest players in the IoT market. Google Glass provides fast access to information by speaking commands to the microphone built into the smart eyewear device. In 2014, Google acquired smart thermostat company Nest for $3.2 billion. Nest is best known for creating the Nest Learning Thermostat, which learns the temperature preferences of its users. Smart thermostats are expected to be a big market in the next few years – $1.4 billion by 2020, according to Navigant Research [16]. Google also acquired a Wi-Fi-enabled security camera company Dropcam for $555 million. Recently, at WWDC (Worldwide Developers Conference), Apple announced a new smart home framework called HomeKit, which can be used for controlling connected devices inside of a user’s home.

7.6 Final Note

With growing adoption of smart phones and social media, citizens or human-in-theloop sensing and processing user-generated data and data generated by user-wearable/ mobile devices continue to be key sources of data and information about us and the markets around us. Better insights will be gained through cognitive computation coupled with business intelligence and visual analytics that is GIS (geographic information system) based. This helps in improving judgment and speed process of taking a better decision.

This unified smart C-IoT software platform enables one to build and deploy smart C-IoT product, systems solutions, and services for different vertical markets in a quick time-to-market fashion. The C-IoT service platforms leverage sensor fusion software framework components, to perform ubiquitous sensing and processing works transparent from the user. The will enable the development of C-IoT applications that interoperate among multiple point solutions of Smart things. This will further drive the IoT market products to new heights.

Billions of devices and sensors, all communicating through the cloud and all feeding into a massive analytics solution to provide a complete picture of the business, its employees, its processes, and its customers is exactly how these technologies should be coming together.

This book encourages IoT Global collaborative innovation where people from diverse background and talent can contribute with ideas, research for advancement of technology, disruptive approaches to applications, and services.


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